Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    Reshaping the Management of Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities
    BENNETT, R (FIG (International Federation of Surveyors), 2006)
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    A new vision on cadastral data model
    Kalantari, Mohsen ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; WALLACE, JUDE ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ( 2006)
    Land administration systems are evolving towards an integrated land management paradigm designed to support sustainable development. In this paradigm, land administration delivers four functionalities: land mapping, land registration, land valuation and land development, each with specific data elements, with the cadastral data model at the core. Cadastral data modelling potentially plays a key role in both data and business management in modern land administration systems. However, some modifications to existing data models could potentially improve their capacity to deliver sustainability. Firstly, the existing role of land parcels and properties as core building blocks in land administration systems can be significantly extended to make the cadastral fabric available to assist management of a wider range of rights, restrictions and responsibilities by using the concept of legal property objects: an entity defined by a law or regulation which relates to a physical space on, below or above the earth. This can be interpreted as a new land related commodity, land parcel or a property. Secondly, although land parcel and property identifiers are key elements of interoperability within land administration subsystems, the paper argues that they have not yet given appropriate emphasis in cadastral data models. Among the identifiers, spatial identifiers can potentially simplify data exchange and work flows among land administration functionalities on a much wider basis. Finally, the paper discusses technical issues raised by changing the cadastral model: the advantages and disadvantages of spatial identifiers, possibilities for spatially presenting rights restrictions and responsibilities, and consistency between various legal property objects.
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    Assessing the worldwide comparison of cadastral systems
    RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; Williamson, Ian P. ; STEUDLER, DANIEL ; BINNS, ANDREW ; King, Mathew (Elsevier, 2006)
    There is growing interest internationally in land administration and cadastral systems and especially in their role as part of a national Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). The important role the cadastre plays in supporting sustainable development is also well recognised. Both developed and developing countries accept the need to evaluate cadastral systems to help identify areas of improvement and whether their systems are capable of addressing future needs. Countries are continually re-engineering and implementing various aspects of the cadastre, comparing systems and trying to identify best practice within nations of the same socio-economic standing.In order to address this need, members of a team from the Centre for Spatial Data Infrastructures and Land Administration at the Department of Geomatics, the University of Melbourne, with the support of the United Nations Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), have developed a cadastral template. The template aims to assist the evaluation and benchmarking of cadastral systems and the role they play in spatial data infrastructures.This paper aims to outline the concept and theory behind the cadastral template as well as analysing the results from 34 completed country templates. Several indicators have been used to analyse and benchmark countries cadastral systems, results of which will contribute to an improved understanding of the complex relationship between cadastral, land administration system and National SDI initiatives. This will also enable a worldwide comparison of cadastral systems, forming the basis for best practice and a tool to improve national cadastral systems.
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    Transferring our knowledge and systems: tenure formalisation
    Dalrymple, K . ; Wallace, J . ; Williamson, I. P. ; ( 2005)
    Land administration systems are key infrastructure for national growth. They deliver macroeconomic growth, allow greater market integration, provide security of tenure and investments, and increase the capacity to deliver welfare. However, land administration systems supporting these activities are complicated and limited. While advanced tools and principles may be borrowed by countries building local land markets, every situation requires innovative solutions in response to the unique and dynamic land administration environment. Project designs must capture a wide range of people to land relationships and different socio-environmental circumstances. An investigation of different people to land and natural resource arrangements was conducted in a development scenario. Case study investigations took place in three rural villages in Cambodia undergoing different stages of land administration project implementation. These studies revealed a wide set of indispensable informal tenure arrangements outside the design scope for providing formal tenure security. From 1990 to now, land projects design emphasis has moved from technological to institutional criteria. Further design change is still required, especially to deliver sustainability and social development. In particular land administration systems used in development scenarios must approach formalization of land tenure with more innovative approaches. This may also require an expansion of tenure security options beyond those currently included in formal systems. Formalised Western skills may be advantageous for delivering some services, but they must be complimented by a holistic understanding of local culture and capacity.
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    Integrated land administration in Australia : the need to align ICT strategies and operations
    Bennett, Rohan ; WALLACE, JUDE ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ( 2005)
    A modern Land Administration System consists of four key functions: land tenure, land valuation, land use and land development. The integration of these functions and associated land information are essential if we are to achieve sustainability objectives and a more efficient property development process. Historically many countries have divided up their key functions; the advent of information and communication technologies [ICT] offered the possibility of integration. Current research suggests that land administration functions have resisted integration, despite technological advancements. This paper analyses such findings by considering the land administration functions of Victoria, Western Australia and New South Wales. It considers each state’s spatial-mapping and registry functions at a strategic and operational level. Particular attention has been given to ICT policy and operations. The study suggests that many factor shave obstructed integration, including historical backgrounds, politics and disparate organizational cultures have all played a role. Another important factor has been the failure to align the ICT strategies and operations of the different functions: land registries have tended to view technology as supporting core operations rather than core strategy. Conversely, spatial-mapping units see ICT as fundamental to operations and strategy: not only has ICT enhanced traditional practice, but it has also allowed for the creation of new products and services. It is argued that in order to achieve further integration, Land Administration functions must align their perception and use of ICT. Shared leadership, integrated ICT infrastructures and government mandates will assist this alignment.
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    Transferring our knowledge and systems: tenure formalisation
    Dalrymple, K. ; Wallace, J. ; Williamson, I. P. ( 2005)
    Land administration systems are key infrastructure for national growth. They deliver macroeconomic growth, allow greater market integration, provide security of tenure and investments, and increase the capacity to deliver welfare. However, land administration systems supporting these activities are complicated and limited. While advanced tools and principles may be borrowed by countries building local land markets, every situation requires innovative solutions in response to the unique and dynamic land administration environment. Project designs must capture a wide range of people to land relationships and different socio-environmental circumstances. An investigation of different people to land and natural resource arrangements was conducted in a development scenario. Case study investigations took place in three rural villages in Cambodia undergoing different stages of land administration project implementation. These studies revealed a wide set of indispensable informal tenure arrangements outside the design scope for providing formal tenure security. From 1990 to now, land projects design emphasis has moved from technological to institutional criteria. Further design change is still required, especially to deliver sustainability and social development. In particular land administration systems used in development scenarios must approach formalization of land tenure with more innovative approaches. This may also require an expansion of tenure security options beyond those currently included in formal systems. Formalised Western skills may be advantageous for delivering some services, but they must be complimented by a holistic understanding of local culture and capacity.
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    A new course producing professional surveyors and engineers for the land development industry
    HUNTER, GARY ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ; ROBINSON, JON ( 2000)
    In 2000 a new combined course commenced at The University of Melbourne known as the Bachelor of Geomatics Engineering/Bachelor of Planning and Design (Property and Construction). The course, to be offered jointly between the Department of Geomatics in the Faculty of Engineering, and the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, has been designed specifically to provide a comprehensive and integrated educational program that delivers professional engineers and surveyors to meet the future needs of the land development industry. In addition to taking geomatics subjects in the areas of measurement science, geographic information science and land administration, students enrolled in the BGeomE/BPD course will also take subjects in property development (including shopping and retailing), construction technology, construction management, construction law, accounting and development management.
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    Land administration and cadastral trends: the impact of the changing humankind-land relationship and major global drivers
    TING, LISA ; Williamson, Ian P. (Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE), 2001)
    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the current forces of change on the humankind/land relationship and why an increasingly integrated approach to land administration and management is imperative. An overview of the past forces of change on land administration is discussed to demonstrate the dynamic nature of the humankind/land relationship. Particular attention is given to major global drivers such as sustainable development, globalization, economic reform and the information technology revolution. The potential impact of these current forces (particularly sustainable development), on the institutional, legal, political and technological frameworks of a nation, is discussed. New Zealand, which has undergone considerable economic and legislative reforms since the mid-1980s, is used as an illustration of trends and the imperative for a more integrated approach to land administration across those frameworks.
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    Re-engineering land administration systems for sustainable development: from rhetoric to reality
    Williamson, Ian P. ( 2001)
    Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations - International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.
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    The role of land administration in the accession of Central European countries to the European Union
    Bogaerts, T ; Williamson, IP ; Fendel, EM (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2002-01-01)