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    Multi-criteria decision analysis for hybrid water supply systems
    Sapkota, M ; Arora, M ; Malano, H (MODSIM2017, 2017-01-01)
    Traditional urban water systems based on centralised only water supply are facing challenges to meet the increasing water demand due to increasing population in urban centres. These systems are also vulnerable to periodic drought and flooding due to climate change. For this reason, urban water managers around the world have been supporting the adoption of decentralised water supply options such as wastewater reuse, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting and stormwater harvesting in combination with centralised system to aid with meeting water demand as well as flood mitigation and stream health restoration. In this paper, the combination of centralised water supply system (WSS) with the decentralised system is termed as hybrid water systems. These systems are relatively new and need to be evaluated using a comprehensive framework that can account for multiple aspects of hybrid water supply systems including interaction between centralised and decentralised system. Integration of multiple objectives (such as supplying fit for purpose water, supply reliability of fit for purpose water, wastewater and stormwater discharge and contaminant loads in wastewater and stormwater) to evaluate the hybrid water supply systems can be effectively accomplished by multi-criteria decision aid techniques. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) requires users to assign the weights to considered criteria to reflect their relative importance. This paper describes weight elicitations in evaluating the various combinations of decentralised and centralised water supply systems. Six performance measures (PMs) were identified in consultation with Victorian water utilities to evaluate the system performance. The identified PMs are: i) Reduction in potable water demand from centralised water supply system, ii) Reduction in wastewater discharges both flow rate and volume, iii) Reduction in contaminant concentration of wastewater flow, iv) Reduction in stormwater flows both intensity and volume, v) Reduction in contaminant loads from stormwater and vi) Improvement of supply reliability of fit for purpose water. Then, a questionnaire survey was conducted among three major stakeholder groups namely, water resource managers, water professionals, and consultants to derive the weights of the selected performance measures. A simple usual preference function was deemed most suitable by the surveyors in order to assess various aspects of hybrid water supply scenarios. Also, it was found that preference measures became more complicated requiring knowledge from diverse disciplines. To overcome this challenge, the use of simple usual preference function was most suitable. Further, the survey results provided almost similar weights to each criterion, varying between 0.15 and 0.18. This indicates the similar importance of all criteria. Also, none of the criteria was deemed as unimportant demonstrating the robustness of all the selected criteria. The elicited weights and preference function of the performance measures in this paper, provide necessary data required to model and evaluate the interactions between hybrid water supply systems.
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    IMPACTS OF HYDROLOGICAL ALTERATIONS ON WATER QUALITY
    Arora, M ; Casas-Mulet, R ; Costelloe, JF ; Peterson, TJ ; McCluskey, AH ; Stewardson, MJ ; Horne, AC ; Webb, JA ; Stewardson, MJ ; Richter, B ; Acreman, M (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017)
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    The Water-Sustainable City Science, Policy and Practice
    Feldman, D ; Arora, M ; Sengupta, A ; Pattigrove, V ; Grant, SB ; BURY, K ; Sahimi, M ; Feldman, D (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017)
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    Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach
    Rathnayaka, K ; Malano, H ; Arora, M (MDPI AG, 2016-12)
    A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it.
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    An Integrated Simulation and Visualisation Platform for the Design of Sustainable Urban Developments in a Peri-Urban Context
    Arora, M ; Tuan, N ; Aye, L ; Malano, H ; Lade, O ; Maheshwari, B ; Singh, VP ; Thoradeniya, B (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2016)
    Designing sustainable urban development is a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary challenge that can benefit from next-generation modelling tools to achieve high performance outcomes and integrated assessments. This chapter presents and demonstrates the use of ‘MUtopia’, an information modelling platform for assessing alternative urban development scenarios. The use of the platform is illustrated through the application to a peri-urban development in the city of Melbourne, Australia. The modelling platform allows simulation of various transition and future scenarios at the precinct level. The platform is capable of extracting data to assist in developing and assessing the performance of different components (land use, individual buildings and infrastructure related to energy and water supply and use, waste management and transport systems) by taking advantage of the platform’s unique scalability. The selected case study is a 31.5 ha Parcel of land, a typical peri-urban development in Melbourne’s fringe located in West Cranbourne. A key aspect of the development is the design of a sustainable precinct that is affordable, provides a greater level of amenity and incorporates biolink corridors and natural open spaces critical to the preservation of native biodiversity. As a low rise suburban development this project presents a unique opportunity for the application of the MUtopia platform and to demonstrate how the tool can lead to optimum design parameters for achieving sustainable development. This chapter also describes how MUtopia can be used to optimise the selection and design of sustainable and resilient energy, water and waste infrastructure and its integration with existing infrastructure.
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    An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems
    Sapkota, M ; Arora, M ; Malano, H ; Moglia, M ; Sharma, A ; George, B ; Pamminger, F (MDPI, 2016-01)
    Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1) Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2) Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.