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ItemDevelopment of an LADM-based Conceptual Data Model for 3D Underground Land Administration in VictoriaSaeidian, B ; Rajabifard, A ; Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2022)Currently, many cities around the world use underground space for different applications such as tunnels, utility networks, parking, walkways, and shopping malls. Due to the increasing use of underground areas, management of this space is very important for decision-makers and stakeholders. A 3D Underground Land Administration (ULA) data model has an underpinning role in the management of spatial and semantic information of underground physical structures (physical aspects) as well as the ownership attributes and the extent of legal spaces in underground (legal aspects). Current data models focus on either physical or legal aspects and are mostly based on 2D approaches. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), as an ISO standard (ISO 19152), is a prominent legal 3D model adopted for land administration. Several studies and countries have used this data model for land administration purposes. However, LADM has not been fully implemented for modelling underground assets. In addition, it does not consider the physical aspects of underground objects. Physical structures have significant roles in defining the ownership extent of underground assets in some jurisdictions such as Victoria, Australia. On the other hand, LADM-based data models developed by different studies are based on the current requirements and legislative of different jurisdictions. Although these solutions can be helpful, a comprehensive underground data model customised for Victoria is needed. This research aims to develop an LADM-based conceptual data model for 3D ULA to enable integrated management of underground assets by interlinking legal and physical aspects. It is based on the requirements and legislative of Victoria jurisdiction. These requirements include underground legal objects and boundaries and underground physical objects. The data model developed in this study is one of the first and crucial steps to enable 3D digital management of underground rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in Victoria.
ItemEvaluation of the International 3D Geospatial Data Models and IFC Standard for Implementing an LADM-based 3D Digital CadastreAtazadeh, B ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Saeidian, B (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2022)Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is an international standard for defining both semantic and spatial information connected with rights, restrictions, and responsibilities (RRRs) that affect land, water, built assets, natural resources, underground spaces, and airspaces. Since LADM is currently a conceptual land administration model, one of the main goals for the new version of this standard is to develop technical encodings. These technical encodings would be useful for adopting the LADM in different applications related to land administration. Therefore, the conceptual schema of LADM standard can be implemented in different and varying ways depending on the implementation requirements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate current standards used widely in the domains of geospatial information systems (GIS) and building information modelling (BIM) in terms of their capabilities to serve as an LADM-based technical encoding for 3D digital cadastre implementation. Some of these standards are CityGML, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), IndoorGML, and LandInfra/InfraGML. There should be a specific use case for each implementation model or technical encoding. For example, a BIM-based implementation of the LADM standard can be useful for 3D digital lodgement of cadastral data when dealing with individual building and property subdivisions. LADM data encoded within a BIM model would be useful during planning, certification, and registration of a new complex subdivision, especially within built environments. In addition, LanInfra/InfraGML can provide another encoding option for 3D digital land registration. More specifically, LanfInfra/InfraGML supports surveying elements which are not well supported in IFC, CityGML and IndoorGML standards. Another option is CityGML technical encoding that can be effective for producing 3D digital property maps for an entire jurisdiction. Current property maps only depict 2D land parcels and ignore spatial and ownership dimensions of vertically placed assets, such as apartments, tunnels, subterranean retail malls, car parks, and utility networks. Developing a CityGML encoding for LADM would be considered a significant milestone towards realising 3D property maps that can provide a fully-integrated representation of underground and aboveground RRRs. Finally, IndoorGML is also another technical encoding which may not an appropriate option for 3D digital cadastre, but it can enable the use of LADM data for lawful indoor navigation. The main contribution of this study is to identify the possible technical encodings for the LADM standard and how various spatial and semantic entities within each encoding can be used to model the equivalent concepts defined in the LADM standard. This would provide guidelines for implementing the conceptual model of LADM using a specific 3D geospatial or BIM standard.