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ItemDeveloping and testing a 3D cadastral data model: a case study in AustraliaAIEN, ALI ; Kalantari, M. ; Rajabifard, A. ; Williamson, I. P. ; Shojaei, D. (ISPRS, 2012)Population growth, urbanization and industrialization place more pressure on land use with the need for increased space. To extend the use and functionality of the land, complex infrastructures are being built, both vertically and horizontally, layered and stacked. These three-dimensional (3D) developments affect the interests (Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs)) attached to the underlying land. A 3D cadastre will assist in managing the effects of 3D development on a particular extent of land. There are many elements that contribute to developing a 3D cadastre, such as existing of 3D property legislations, 3D DBMS, 3D visualization. However, data modelling is one of the most important elements of a successful 3D cadastre. As architectural models of houses and high rise buildings help their users visualize the final product, 3D cadastre data model supports 3D cadastre users to understand the structure or behavior of the system and has a template that guides them to construct and implement the 3D cadastre. Many jurisdictions, organizations and software developers have built their own cadastral data model. Land Administration Domain Model (DIS-ISO 19152, The Netherlands) and ePlan (Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, Australia) are examples of existing data models. The variation between these data models is the result of different attitudes towards cadastres. However, there is a basic common thread among them all. Current cadastral data models use a 2D land-parcel concept and extend it to support 3D requirements. These data models cannot adequately manage and represent the spatial extent of 3D RRRs. Most of the current cadastral data models have been influenced by a very broad understanding of 3D cadastral concepts because better clarity in what needs to be represented and analysed in the cadastre needs to be established. This paper presents the first version of a 3D Cadastral Data Model (3DCDM_Version 1.0). 3DCDM models both the legal and physical extent of 3D properties and associated interests. The data model extends the traditional cadastral requirements to cover other applications such as urban planning and land valuation and taxation. A demonstration of a test system on the proposed data model is also presented. The test is based on a case study in Victoria, Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the data model.
ItemAdvanced principles of 3D cadastral data modellingAIEN, ALI ; Kalantari, Mohsen ; RAJABIFARD, ABBAS ; WILLIAMSON, IAN ; BENNETT, ROHAN (FIG, 2011)Current cadastral data models use a 2D land-parcel definition and extend it to cover 3D requirements. This approach cannot adequately manage and represent the spatial extent of 3D land rights, restrictions and responsibilities (3D RRRs). This paper aims to develop a 3D Cadastral Data Model (3DCDM) to configure 3D cadastral frameworks, manage and represent 3D RRRs, and facilitate 3D cadastre implementation. Three underlying principles have been proposed to develop the 3D Cadastral Data Model (3DCDM). These principles are: • Principle 1: The 2D cadastral data model is a sub-set of the 3D cadastral data model, • Principle 2: The 3D cadastral data model should not only accommodate 3D RRRs and their association with physical objects: the data model should also represent the spatial extent of 3D RRRs, and; • Principle 3: The 3D cadastre data model should cater for a broad range of land administration functions including land tenure, land value, land use, and land development with sufficient detail. These principles are used to assess and modify the core cadastral data model. Additionally, principles related to the legal property object are also used to modify the 3DCDM. The legal property object combines interests and its spatial dimension into a single entity. This creates more flexibility and enables inclusion of complex commodities and all kinds of RRRs. The first version of a 3D Cadastral Data Model (3CDM_Version 1.0) is provided at the end of this paper. 3DCDM maintains both legal and physical parts of 3D objects. The data model has wider application than the traditional requirements of cadastral systems: it is also usable in applications such as urban planning and disaster management.