Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    Evaluation of the International 3D Geospatial Data Models and IFC Standard for Implementing an LADM-based 3D Digital Cadastre
    Atazadeh, B ; Olfat, H ; Rajabifard, A ; Saeidian, B (International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), 2022)
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    Earthquake Vulnerability of Port Structures in Indonesia
    Widyastuti, H ; Lumantarna, E ; Sofi, M ; Ramli, MI ; Oktavianus, Y ; Rajabifard, A (IOPscience, 2020-02-08)
    Indonesia is located in a high seismic region and is in one of the most vulnerable countries likely to experience earthquakes. The impact of earthquakes on port structures can have an enormous impact on the economy if the earthquake hazard is not acknowledged, essential elements of the transportation system not identified, and damage prevention procedures not applied. In this project, the seismic performance of critical infrastructures, such as post structures as designed and constructed, are assessed. Outcomes of the assessment enable vulnerable elements to be identified leading to design recommendations. The project is conducted based on data collection, field survey, site investigations, experiments, and computer modelling and simulations.
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    Developing and testing a 3D cadastral data model: a case study in Australia
    Aien, A ; Kalantari, M ; Rajabifard, A ; Williamson, IP ; Shojaei, D (ISPRS Comm V Symposium, 2012-07-16)
    Population growth, urbanization and industrialization place more pressure on land use with the need for increased space. To extend the use and functionality of the land, complex infrastructures are being built, both vertically and horizontally, layered and stacked. These three-dimensional (3D) developments affect the interests (Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs)) attached to the underlying land. A 3D cadastre will assist in managing the effects of 3D development on a particular extent of land. There are many elements that contribute to developing a 3D cadastre, such as existing of 3D property legislations, 3D DBMS, 3D visualization. However, data modelling is one of the most important elements of a successful 3D cadastre. As architectural models of houses and high rise buildings help their users visualize the final product, 3D cadastre data model supports 3D cadastre users to understand the structure or behavior of the system and has a template that guides them to construct and implement the 3D cadastre. Many jurisdictions, organizations and software developers have built their own cadastral data model. Land Administration Domain Model (DIS-ISO 19152, The Netherlands) and ePlan (Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, Australia) are examples of existing data models. The variation between these data models is the result of different attitudes towards cadastres. However, there is a basic common thread among them all. Current cadastral data models use a 2D land-parcel concept and extend it to support 3D requirements. These data models cannot adequately manage and represent the spatial extent of 3D RRRs. Most of the current cadastral data models have been influenced by a very broad understanding of 3D cadastral concepts because better clarity in what needs to be represented and analysed in the cadastre needs to be established. This paper presents the first version of a 3D Cadastral Data Model (3DCDM_Version 1.0). 3DCDM models both the legal and physical extent of 3D properties and associated interests. The data model extends the traditional cadastral requirements to cover other applications such as urban planning and land valuation and taxation. A demonstration of a test system on the proposed data model is also presented. The test is based on a case study in Victoria, Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the data model.
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    The current status and ongoing investigations of 2D and 3D digital cadastre (ePlan) in Victoria, Australia
    Olfat, H ; Shojaei, D ; Briffa, M ; Rajabifard, A (CEUR, 2017-01-01)
    EPlan is a collaborative program between the Australian land authorities and the surveying industry, in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) which aims to replace paper and PDF plans with digital files based on a national standard. ePlan was introduced in Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D (non-building) plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgement portal every fortnight. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by a number of challenges which includes surveyors acceptance of adopting a new method of producing plans, the quality of the visualisation service which converts the ePlan LandXML file into PDF as the legal title diagram, and support for 3D building subdivision plans. This paper aims to explore the current status of ePlan implementation in Victoria and discuss the ongoing research programs developed to address the aforementioned challenges.
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    3D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia
    Shojaei, D ; Olfat, H ; Briffa, M ; Rajabifard, A (Copernicus GmBH, 2017-10-23)
    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.
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    A multi-dimensional analytics platform to support planning and design for liveable and sustainable urban environment
    Sabri, S ; Chen, Y ; Rajabifard, A ; Lim, TK ; Khoo, V ; Kalantari, M (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS), 2019-09-23)
    New urban strategies encourage compact city and higher density urban development due to unprecedented city growth and rapid urbanisation. This has led to greater attention to multi-dimensional representation, modelling and analytics of urban settings among urban planners, decision makers, and researchers. Nowadays, urban planning and urban design practitioners and scholars leverage the advancements in computer technology and multi-dimensional visualisation in examining the development scenarios from physical, environmental, social, and economic aspects. However, many urban planners still rely on two-dimensional (2D) land information and urban designers use three-dimensional (3D) graphic-based engines to asses a proposed building or assess the impact of changing development regulations. This limits the decision makers from a holistic approach through integrating the urban systems with other application domains such as transport, environmental, and disaster management to ensure the liveability of cities. This paper describes the design, and development of a multi-dimensional and spatially enabled platform to support liveability planning in Singapore. A Quantitative Urban Environment Simulation Tool (QUEST), developed in Singapore, leveraged 3D mapping data captured under the Singapore Land Authority's (SLA) 3D National Topographic Mapping project. SLA's 3D data including Building Information Model (BIM), CityGML, and other geospatial data (building footprints and land use) were processed and adapted as a service for a series of urban analytics. The paper concludes that the prerequisites for any urban environmental simulation system to be integrated with other application domains are 3D mapping data and a digital urban model, which must be spatially accurate and based on open data standards.
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    Innovative modelling and visualisation platform for sustainable cities - MUtopia
    Mendis, PA ; Ngo, TD ; Aye, L ; Malano, HM ; Rajabifard, A (University of Moratuwa, 2012)
    Now more than half the world’s population lives in towns and cities and this proportion will rise to nearly two thirds by 2030. Many cities worldwide are facing acute challenges, and therefore it is essential that all future developments are carried out on a sustainable footing. Through a web-based platform, MUtopia visualises and demonstrates in a quantifiable manner what impact a planned site development would have by representing best practice in all aspects of sustainable urban living on a relatively large scale. Sites may be new suburbs or rebuilt sections of the city large enough to require systematic planning. The project focuses on the development of an integrated modelling, analysis and visualization tool that helps the government and developers to make informed decisions to achieve such sustainable urban development and implementation. MUtopia integrates the streams of energy, waste, water and transport, based on land use, as well as social and environmental factors so that various planning scenar os or dependencies between factors can be tested. It is an integrated BIM and GIS tool. MUtopia would be an international first in an area of growing interest and need.
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    An LADM-based Approach for Developing and Implementing a National 3D Cadastre – A Case Study of Malaysia
    Rajabifard, ; AGUNBIADE, ; Kalantari, M ; Yip, KM ; Atazadeh, B ; Badiee, ; ISA, D ; ADIMIN, MK ; CHAN, KL ; AIEN, A ; OLFAT, H ; SHOJAEI, D ; Anaraki, MR (FIG (International Federation of Surveyors), 2018)
    With the growing dominance of multi-storey buildings and other infrastructures, 2D-based cadastral systems are facing new challenges in recording, managing and visualising the spatial extent of vertically stratified cadastral spaces. In Malaysia, surveying and cadastral measurements are currently stored in the National Digital Cadastral Data Base (NDCDB), which is a 2D-based database in the form of planimetric coordinates (X, Y). However, in reality, cadastral objects are three dimensional and 2D-based approaches provide a fragmented view of these 3D spatial objects. Another challenge is that multiple pages of 2D drawings, which are used to show all the spaces of multi-storey buildings and surroundings, imposes a significant amount of cognitive effort for inexpert stakeholders who cannot easily understand the accurate location of cadastral boundaries obscured within physical structures. Therefore, the methods of data collection, calculation and adjustment of existing survey and processing data needs to be up raded for the purposes of implementing 3D cadastral database and producing 3D digital certified plans.
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    Connecting LADM and IFC Standards–Pathways towards an Integrated Legal-Physical Model
    Atazadeh, B ; Kalantari, M (FIG (International Federation of Surveyors), 2018)
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