Infrastructure Engineering - Research Publications

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    Hui, K ; Ismail, S ; Hui, K ; Ismail, S (The University of Melbourne, 2022-09-27)
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    Value of Intersection Cross Box Data in Traffic Signal Control
    Yazdani, M ; Sarvi, M ; Asadi Bagloee, S ; Nassir, N (ITS World Congress, 2021)
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    Investigating into public transport fare noninteractions using large-scale automatically collected data
    Yin, T ; Nassir, N ; Leong, J ; Tanin, E ; Sarvi, M (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    Fare card data provides an unprecedented opportunity to monitor day-to-day variability of travel demand and its responses to service disruptions and special events. However, when passengers take public transport without interacting with the fare system, demand is usually underestimated, which may cause problems for performance measurement and revenue collection. This research aims to investigate the fare noninteractions phenomena of the tram network in Melbourne, Australia. According to a prior evaluation, only 37% of boarding passengers validate tickets. This study utilizes large-scale automatically collated data to measure fare noninteractions, including data collected by Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) and Automated Fare Collection (AFC) systems. Compared to previous studies with small samples of on-board surveys, it contributes to the state of the art as these high coverage data enable the study of the impact of different types of explanatory variables, including time periods, routes, stop location, travel demand variability, presence of an inspector on-board, etc. Moreover, a free service zone is located in Melbourne central business district where passengers are not required to validate tickets. We specifically investigate passengers’ behavior at the boundary of a free service zone. Results show that fare noninteractions are lower for stops close to train stations, education facilities, stops that have been frequently inspected, and during the peak hours, but are higher for stops with large boarding flows, crowded services, evening periods and weekends. Importantly, conditioning on other variables, fare noninteractions at the boundary of the free service zone are higher in the morning peak but lower in the afternoon peak. The passenger flow diagram demonstrates the reason behind this may lie in the differences between purposes of trips. This investigation provides a starting point for proposing solutions to deal with the missing AFC data due to fare noninteractions.
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    Considerations for Expediting Road Safety Benefits with the Deployment of Vehicle Communication Technologies
    Nassir, N ; Tong, J ; Sauri Lavieri, P ; Ryan, S ; Sweatman, P ; Harris, S ; Sarvi, M (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    Communication technologies are enabling the introduction of connected vehicles and have the potential to improve road safety outcomes at a global scale. This paper aims to deliver a systematic understanding, classification, and evaluation of available communication technologies for road safety that considers the current challenges, mindsets, and future direction for C-ITS technology implementation. This is achieved by combining the results of three lines of research inquiry: 1) literature review of existing communication technologies and worldwide pilot experiments and trial implementations, 2) assessment of the potential for selected connected vehicle safety applications to address motor vehicle crashes across different geographies and road conditions, and 3) expert panel interviews to investigate the challenges and opportunities for technology implementation, specifically in the Australian context, with supporting evidence from global literature sources. These investigations found that C-ITS deployment concerns identified by stakeholders are in line with those identified in literature; however, there are significant safety benefits to be reaped from C-ITS deployment. Policymakers can leverage the potential of this positive outcome and target efforts at addressing the identified challenges when considering pathways to the uptake of connectivity technologies.
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    Data-driven evaluation model of safety risks at signalised intersection
    Chan, L ; Nassir, N ; Asadi Bagloee, S ; Sarvi, M ; Yazdani, M (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    Near future safety risk evaluation is a critical step towards adaptive traffic safe operation at a smart intersection. This paper proposes a data-driven model that can quickly evaluate simulated safety risks for use in adaptive operational interventions. A traffic micro-simulation model was utilised to generate conflicts-based data for developing the machine learning model. Conflict indicators including time to collision, TTC, and post encroachment time, PET, were used to identify safety risk. Supervise learning models such as linear regression and machine learning models including random forest and extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) were employed to evaluate risk indices for adaptive operations. In total, 9 models were trained, and XGBoost were found to outperform the other algorithms with 0.87 of the overall accuracy. The findings of this study contribute to the development of edge computing traffic operation system accounting safety.
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    Abnormality Detection in Urban Traffic Data: A Review
    Taheri Sarteshnizi, I ; Sarvi, M ; Asadi Bagloee, S ; Nassir, N (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    Anomalous data is called to a data sample or a sequence of data that significantly differs from the others. Accurately and on-time detection of anomalies (abnormalities) is crucial for system managers since it may convey important information to them. Anomaly detection is widely investigated in different research areas as well as transportation and traffic field. In this paper, we review the literature of anomaly detection in urban traffic networks to find the most recent state-of-the-art methodologies in this field. A search method is used in this paper to find the most relevant research papers, and they are studied and analyzed regarding anomaly type, data type, and methodology. Different types of anomalies, data collectors, spatiotemporal scopes, and detection methods in the literature are categorized and investigated in this work. Finally, a summary and conclusion section is provided in this work to show the possible future research directions. Based on the findings, accidents and city-wide events like festivals or concerts are mostly detected in previous works as anomalies using loop detector (LD), and trajectory data (GPS data). Moreover, supervised methods are mostly employed for accident detection aims, but papers using unsupervised approaches detect city-wide events with GPS data.
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    The impact of high-occupancy lanes on the uptake of on-demand ridesplitting services
    Hajhashemi, E ; Sauri Lavieri, P ; Nassir, N (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    New mobility alternatives such as on-demand ridesplitting services can bring large benefits to cities by increasing automobile occupancy and reducing congestion, pollution, and space allocated to parking. However, the current adoption of on-demand ridesplitting services is still limited and transport demand management (TDM) strategies may be necessary to increase such uptake. This work uses the agent-based simulation tool MATSim to simulate 10% of the population in the Greater Melbourne Area and investigate the effectiveness of dedicated ridesplitting lanes (DRL) on the uptake of on-demand ridesplitting services and overall transport network efficiency. Results suggest that the tested DRL configurations are effective in increasing the uptake of such services. We observe a significant increase in vehicle occupancy and a reduction in vehicle kilometres travelled, which indicate that this is a promising policy. However, in regard to average travel time, DRL scenarios benefit people with trips within the on-demand ridesplitting service’s area while deteriorating average travel time for people whose trips’ origins and/or destinations are outside the service’s area. Future simulations should incorporate multi-modal travel and include transport hubs that facilitate inter-modal transfers to test whether the observed benefits can be expanded to the areas outside the ridesplitting service area.
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    Developing a shopping destination choice model for people living in Metropolitan Melbourne
    Lin, A ; Chen, Y ; Wines, D ; Nassir, N (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    One key factor to assist effective infrastructure and urban planning is to better understand the travel demands and the impact from various attributes on travellers’ decisions for destination. This study develops a destination choice model for shopping trips in Melbourne. The model predicts travellers’ choices for their shopping destinations from different areas in Melbourne based on demographic and trip related characteristics of individuals recorded in the Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity (VISTA) between 2012 and 2016. One of the main challenges overcome in this research is the choice set formation. ASGS Statistical Area 1 (SA1) has been adopted as zones for categorising origins and destination locations. For each observed trip from the Victoria travel survey, nine alternative destinations within 10km travel distance from the origin are randomly generated to form the choice set together with the observed destination. The final model is calibrated and to have up to 67% accuracy in the validation process and obtain a goodness of fit of 0.65, demonstrating promising performance. The final model indicates that three main attributes, travel distance, the number of shops and supermarkets in the destination precinct has the most significant impact on the choice of shopping destination in Melbourne. In addition, trip-specific attributes such as the number of stops made during a trip, the intended dwelling time at the destination and whether the travel is made during peak time (10am – 3pm) have varying levels of impact to destination choice on top of the three main attributes.
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    Evaluating initiatives for improvement of urban freight deliveries: A case study of Sydney metropolitan area
    Mohri, SS ; Vijay, A ; Kahalimoghadam, M ; Stokoe, M ; Nassir, N ; Thompson, R (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    City logistics involves diverse stakeholders and faces ongoing challenges. Implementation of initiatives that are acceptable to all stakeholders is critical. In this paper, we apply the multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA) to address stakeholders’ perspectives in initiative selection. By focusing on the Sydney Greater area as a case study, we first identify the main stakeholders and their objectives and then conduct separate surveys for each group. The result from MAMCA analysis shows that advanced planning and modelling is the most effective alternative for stakeholders to achieve their objectives. This initiative includes better understanding of the ideal metropolitan freight network structure, exploring advanced applications of technology in last mile freight, and refinement of TfNSW freight forecasting models. We apply a sensitivity analysis to test the outcomes when stakeholders’ impacts are not equal in launching initiatives and discuss the results.
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    Public transport bunching: A critical review with focus on methods and findings for implications for policy and future research
    Rezazada, M ; Nassir, N ; Tanin, E (Australasian Transport Research Forum, 2022)
    Bunching affects both public transport users and operators adversely. It increases waiting time at stops and onboard, reduces travel speed and comfort, costs more, and substantially deteriorates service reliability. This paper reviews the definition of bunching, underlying causes, modeling, and control strategies. Terminology is to classify demand and supply-related bunching determinants based on spatio-temporal and static and dynamic variability, which is overlooked in the existing literature. Furthermore, seven potential control strategies are examined within a systematic classification of control methods for qualitative assessment purposes. In this assessment, various passenger and operator attributes are utilized to examine the performance of each method based on findings from a comprehensive survey of the relevant articles in the state-of-the-art. Headway and schedule-based holdings, speed control, stop skipping & boarding limit, and short turning strategies are grouped within operator-oriented-method (OOM). Real-time demand control, as the only passenger-oriented method (POM), has also shown promising results in reducing bunching incidents and service reliability improvement. The lack of a practical classification of control methodologies and not capturing spatio-temporal variation of contributing factors led to an imbalance in the number of studies explored each method. OOM such as holdings are well researched, but demand-related control strategies are overlooked. Exploring dynamic demand control and hybrid micro behavioral management paramount research for the future. This review can assist policymakers in adopting the most appropriate strategy.