Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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    Navier-Stokes-based linear model for unstably stratified turbulent channel flows
    Madhusudanan, A ; Illingworth, SJ ; Marusic, I ; Chung, D (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2022-04-06)
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    An extensional strain sensing mechanosome drives adhesion-independent platelet activation at supraphysiological hemodynamic gradients
    Abidin, NAZ ; Poon, EKW ; Szydzik, C ; Timofeeva, M ; Akbaridoust, F ; Brazilek, RJ ; Lopez, FJT ; Ma, X ; Lav, C ; Marusic, I ; Thompson, PE ; Mitchell, A ; Ooi, ASH ; Hamilton, JR ; Nesbitt, WS (BMC, 2022-03-24)
    BACKGROUND: Supraphysiological hemodynamics are a recognized driver of platelet activation and thrombosis at high-grade stenosis and in blood contacting circulatory support devices. However, whether platelets mechano-sense hemodynamic parameters directly in free flow (in the absence of adhesion receptor engagement), the specific hemodynamic parameters at play, the precise timing of activation, and the signaling mechanism(s) involved remain poorly elucidated. RESULTS: Using a generalized Newtonian computational model in combination with microfluidic models of flow acceleration and quasi-homogenous extensional strain, we demonstrate that platelets directly mechano-sense acute changes in free-flow extensional strain independent of shear strain, platelet amplification loops, von Willebrand factor, and canonical adhesion receptor engagement. We define an extensional strain sensing "mechanosome" in platelets involving cooperative Ca2+ signaling driven by the mechanosensitive channel Piezo1 (as the primary strain sensor) and the fast ATP gated channel P2X1 (as the secondary signal amplifier). We demonstrate that type II PI3 kinase C2α activity (acting as a "clutch") couples extensional strain to the mechanosome. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that platelets are adapted to rapidly respond to supraphysiological extensional strain dynamics, rather than the peak magnitude of imposed wall shear stress. In the context of overall platelet activation and thrombosis, we posit that "extensional strain sensing" acts as a priming mechanism in response to threshold levels of extensional strain allowing platelets to form downstream adhesive interactions more rapidly under the limiting effects of supraphysiological hemodynamics.
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    An energy-efficient pathway to turbulent drag reduction
    Marusic, I ; Chandran, D ; Rouhi, A ; Fu, MK ; Wine, D ; Holloway, B ; Chung, D ; Smits, AJ (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-10-04)
    Simulations and experiments at low Reynolds numbers have suggested that skin-friction drag generated by turbulent fluid flow over a surface can be decreased by oscillatory motion in the surface, with the amount of drag reduction predicted to decline with increasing Reynolds number. Here, we report direct measurements of substantial drag reduction achieved by using spanwise surface oscillations at high friction Reynolds numbers ([Formula: see text]) up to 12,800. The drag reduction occurs via two distinct physical pathways. The first pathway, as studied previously, involves actuating the surface at frequencies comparable to those of the small-scale eddies that dominate turbulence near the surface. We show that this strategy leads to drag reduction levels up to 25% at [Formula: see text] = 6,000, but with a power cost that exceeds any drag-reduction savings. The second pathway is new, and it involves actuation at frequencies comparable to those of the large-scale eddies farther from the surface. This alternate pathway produces drag reduction of 13% at [Formula: see text] = 12,800. It requires significantly less power and the drag reduction grows with Reynolds number, thereby opening up potential new avenues for reducing fuel consumption by transport vehicles and increasing power generation by wind turbines.
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    Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation for Turbulent Boundary Layers
    Wang, S ; Xia, Y ; Abu Rowin, W ; Marusic, I ; Sandberg, R ; Chung, D ; Hutchins, N ; Tanimoto, K ; Oda, T (The University of Queensland, 2020-12-11)
    Convective heat transfer in rough wall-bounded turbulent flows is prevalent in many engineering applications, such as in gas turbines and heat exchangers. At present, engineers lack the design tools to accurately predict the convective heat transfer in the presence of non-smooth boundaries. Accordingly, a new turbulent boundary layer facility has been commissioned, where the temperature of an interchangeable test surface can be precisely controlled, and conductive heat losses are minimized. Using this facility, we can estimate the heat transfer coefficient (Stanton number, St), through measurement of the power supplied to the electrical heaters and also from measurements of the thermal and momentum boundary layers evolving over this surface. These methods have been initially investigated over a shorter smooth prototype heated surface and compared with existing St prediction models. Preliminary results suggest that we can accurately estimate St in this facility.
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    An investigation of cold-wire spatial resolution using a DNS database
    Xia, Y ; Rowin, W ; Jelly, T ; Chung, D ; Marusic, I ; Hutchins, N (The University of Queensland, 2020-12-11)
    The effect of spatial resolution of cold-wire anemometry on both the variance and energy spectrum of temperature fluctuations is analyzed through the use of a numerical database. Temperature fluctuation snapshots from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a heated smooth-wall turbulent channel flow are spatially averaged in the spanwise direction to simulate the wire filtering. The results show that the wire length does not affect the mean temperature while it significantly attenuates the variance of temperature fluctuations, particularly in the vicinity of the wall. As the filter length grows, the peaks of the one- and two-dimensional energy spectrograms are further attenuated. Limited attenuation is seen when the filter length is smaller than 30 wall units in the vicinity of the wall, whereas a complete suppression of the near-wall energetic peak is observed when the filter length exceeds 100 wall units.
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    Evolution of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of an axisymmetric turbulent jet
    Khashehchi, M ; Ooi, A ; Soria, J ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2013-01-01)
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    On the universality of inertial energy in the log layer of turbulent boundary layer and pipe flows
    Chung, D ; Marusic, I ; Monty, JP ; Vallikivi, M ; Smits, AJ (SPRINGER, 2015-07-01)
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    Simultaneous micro-PIV measurements and real-time control trapping in a cross-slot channel
    Akbaridoust, F ; Philip, J ; Hill, DRA ; Marusic, I (Springer, 2018-12-01)
    Here we report novel micro-PIV measurements around micron-sized objects that are trapped at the centre of a stagnation point flow generated in a cross-slow microchannel using real-time control. The method enables one to obtain accurate velocity and strain rate fields around the trapped objects under straining flows. In previous works, it has been assumed that the flow field measured in the absence of the object is the one experienced by the object in the stagnation point flow. However, the results reveal that this need not be the case and typically the strain rates experienced by the objects are higher. Therefore, simultaneously measuring the flow field around a trapped object is needed to accurately estimate the undisturbed strain rate (away from the trapped object). By combining the micro-PIV measurements with an analytical solution by Jeffery (Proc R Soc Lond A 102(715):161–179, 1922), we are able to estimate the velocity and strain rate around the trapped object, thus providing a potential fluidic method for characterising mechanical properties of micron-sized materials, which are important in biological and other applications.
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    Structure Inclination Angles in the Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer
    Chauhan, K ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, J ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2013-04-01)
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    Towards fully-resolved PIV measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers with DSLR cameras
    de Silva, CM ; Grayson, K ; Scharnowski, S ; Kaehler, CJ ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2018-06-01)