Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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    The effect of cleaning and repainting on the ship drag penalty
    Utama, IKAP ; Nugroho, B ; Yusuf, M ; Prasetyo, FA ; Hakim, ML ; Suastika, IK ; Ganapathisubramani, B ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, JP (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-04-12)
    Although the hull of a recently dry-docked large ship is expected to be relatively smooth, surface scanning and experimentation reveal that it can exhibit an "orange-peel" roughness pattern with an equivalent sand-grain roughness height ks = 0. 101 mm. Using the known ks value and integral boundary layer evolution, a recently cleaned and coated full-scale ship was predicted to experience a significant increase in the average coefficient of friction %ΔC¯f and total hydrodynamic resistance %ΔR¯T during operation. Here the report also discusses two recently reported empirical estimations that can estimate ks directly from measured surface topographical parameters, by-passing the need for experiments on replicated surfaces. The empirical estimations are found to have an accuracy of 4.5 - 5 percentage points in %ΔC¯f.
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    Non-k-type behaviour of roughness when in-plane wavelength approaches the boundary layer thickness
    Nugroho, B ; Monty, JP ; Utama, IKAP ; Ganapathisubramani, B ; Hutchins, N (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-01-22)
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    Simulation of large-eddy-break-up device (LEBU) in a moderate Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
    Chin, C ; Monty, J ; HUTCHINS, N ; Ooi, A ; Orlu, R ; Schlatter, P (Springer, 2016-08-11)
    A well-resolved large eddy simulation (LES) of a large-eddy break-up (LEBU) device in a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer is performed with, Reynolds number, based on free-stream velocity and momentum-loss thickness, of R e θ ≈ 4300. The implementation of the LEBU is via an immersed boundary method. The LEBU is positioned at a wall-normal distance of 0.8 δ (δ denoting the local boundary layer thickness at the location of the LEBU) from the wall. The LEBU acts to delay the growth of the turbulent boundary layer and produces global skin friction reduction beyond 180δ downstream of the LEBU, with a peak local skin friction reduction of approximately 12 %. However, no net drag reduction is found when accounting for the device drag of the LEBU in accordance with the towing tank experiments by Sahlin et al. (Phys. Fluids 31, 2814, 1988). Further investigation is performed on the interactions of high and low momentum bulges with the LEBU and the corresponding output is analysed, showing a ‘break-up’ of these large momentum bulges downstream of the LEBU. In addition, results from the spanwise energy spectra show consistent reduction in energy at spanwise length scales for λ+z>1000 independent of streamwise and wall-normal location when compared to the corresponding turbulent boundary layer without LEBU.
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    Structure Inclination Angles in the Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer
    Chauhan, K ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, J ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2013-04-01)
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    The Effect of Wall Normal Actuation on a Turbulent Boundary Layer
    Schlanderer, SC ; Hutchins, N ; Sandberg, RD (SPRINGER, 2017-12-01)
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    Towards fully-resolved PIV measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers with DSLR cameras
    de Silva, CM ; Grayson, K ; Scharnowski, S ; Kaehler, CJ ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2018-06-01)
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    Towards Reconciling the Large-Scale Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers in the Atmosphere and Laboratory
    Hutchins, N ; Chauhan, K ; Marusic, I ; Monty, J ; Klewicki, J (SPRINGER, 2012-11-01)
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    Wall-drag measurements of smooth- and rough-wall turbulent boundary layers using a floating element
    Baars, WJ ; Squire, DT ; Talluru, KM ; Abbassi, MR ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2016)
    The mean wall shear stress, $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w , is a fundamental variable for characterizing turbulent boundary layers. Ideally, $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w is measured by a direct means and the use of floating elements has long been proposed. However, previous such devices have proven to be problematic due to low signal-to-noise ratios. In this paper, we present new direct measurements of $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w where high signal-to-noise ratios are achieved using a new design of a large-scale floating element with a surface area of 3 m (streamwise) × 1 m (spanwise). These dimensions ensure a strong measurement signal, while any error associated with an integral measurement of $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w is negligible in Melbourne’s large-scale turbulent boundary layer facility. Wall-drag induced by both smooth- and rough-wall zero-pressure-gradient flows are considered. Results for the smooth-wall friction coefficient, $$C_f \equiv øverlineτ _w/q_\infty $$ C f ≡ τ ¯ w / q ∞ , follow a Coles–Fernholz relation $$C_f = \left[ 1/κ \ln \left( Re_θ \right) + C\right] ^-2$$ C f = 1 / κ ln R e θ + C - 2 to within 3 % ( $$κ = 0.38$$ κ = 0.38 and $$C = 3.7$$ C = 3.7 ) for a momentum thickness-based Reynolds number, $$Re_θ > 15,000$$ R e θ > 15 , 000 . The agreement improves for higher Reynolds numbers to <1 % deviation for $$Re_θ > 38,000$$ R e θ > 38 , 000 . This smooth-wall benchmark verification of the experimental apparatus is critical before attempting any rough-wall studies. For a rough-wall configuration with P36 grit sandpaper, measurements were performed for $$10,500< Re_θ < 88,500$$ 10 , 500 < R e θ < 88 , 500 , for which the wall-drag indicates the anticipated trend from the transitionally to the fully rough regime.