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ItemA comparison of turbulent pipe, channel and boundary layer flowsMonty, JP ; Hutchins, N ; Ng, HCH ; Marusic, I ; Chong, MS (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2009-08-10)The extent or existence of similarities between fully developed turbulent pipes and channels, and in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers has come into question in recent years. This is in contrast to the traditionally accepted view that, upon appropriate normalization, all three flows can be regarded as the same in the near-wall region. In this paper, the authors aim to provide clarification of this issue through streamwise velocity measurements in these three flows with carefully matched Reynolds number and measurement resolution. Results show that mean statistics in the near-wall region collapse well. However, the premultiplied energy spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations show marked structural differences that cannot be explained by scaling arguments. It is concluded that, while similarities exist at these Reynolds numbers, one should exercise caution when drawing comparisons between the three shear flows, even near the wall.
ItemLarge-scale amplitude modulation of the small-scale structures in turbulent boundary layersMathis, R ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2009-06-10)In this paper we investigate the relationship between the large- and small-scale energy-containing motions in wall turbulence. Recent studies in a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (Hutchins & Marusic, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 365, 2007a, pp. 647–664) have revealed a possible influence of the large-scale boundary-layer motions on the small-scale near-wall cycle, akin to a pure amplitude modulation. In the present study we build upon these observations, using the Hilbert transformation applied to the spectrally filtered small-scale component of fluctuating velocity signals, in order to quantify the interaction. In addition to the large-scale log-region structures superimposing a footprint (or mean shift) on the near-wall fluctuations (Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, 2nd edn., 1976, Cambridge University Press; Metzger & Klewicki, Phys. Fluids, vol. 13, 2001, pp. 692–701.), we find strong supporting evidence that the small-scale structures are subject to a high degree of amplitude modulation seemingly originating from the much larger scales that inhabit the log region. An analysis of the Reynolds number dependence reveals that the amplitude modulation effect becomes progressively stronger as the Reynolds number increases. This is demonstrated through three orders of magnitude in Reynolds number, from laboratory experiments at Reτ ~ 103–104 to atmospheric surface layer measurements at Reτ ~ 106.