Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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    The effect of cleaning and repainting on the ship drag penalty
    Utama, IKAP ; Nugroho, B ; Yusuf, M ; Prasetyo, FA ; Hakim, ML ; Suastika, IK ; Ganapathisubramani, B ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, JP (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021-04-12)
    Although the hull of a recently dry-docked large ship is expected to be relatively smooth, surface scanning and experimentation reveal that it can exhibit an "orange-peel" roughness pattern with an equivalent sand-grain roughness height ks = 0. 101 mm. Using the known ks value and integral boundary layer evolution, a recently cleaned and coated full-scale ship was predicted to experience a significant increase in the average coefficient of friction %ΔC¯f and total hydrodynamic resistance %ΔR¯T during operation. Here the report also discusses two recently reported empirical estimations that can estimate ks directly from measured surface topographical parameters, by-passing the need for experiments on replicated surfaces. The empirical estimations are found to have an accuracy of 4.5 - 5 percentage points in %ΔC¯f.
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    Non-k-type behaviour of roughness when in-plane wavelength approaches the boundary layer thickness
    Nugroho, B ; Monty, JP ; Utama, IKAP ; Ganapathisubramani, B ; Hutchins, N (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-01-22)
    Abstract
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    Aerosol generation related to respiratory interventions and the effectiveness of a personal ventilation hood.
    McGain, F ; Humphries, RS ; Lee, JH ; Schofield, R ; French, C ; Keywood, MD ; Irving, L ; Kevin, K ; Patel, J ; Monty, J (College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand, 2020-09)
    OBJECTIVE: To quantify aerosol generation from respiratory interventions and the effectiveness of their removal by a personal ventilation hood. DESIGN AND SETTING: Determination of the aerosol particle generation (in a single, healthy volunteer in a clean room) associated with breathing, speaking, wet coughing, oxygen (O2) 15 L/min via face mask, O2 60 L/min via nasal prongs, bilevel non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (BiPAP) and nebulisation with O2 10 L/min. INTERVENTIONS: Aerosol generation was measured with two particle sizer and counter devices, focusing on aerosols 0.5-5 μm (human-generated aerosols), with and without the hood. An increase from baseline of less than 0.3 particles per mL was considered a low level of generation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons of aerosol generation between different respiratory interventions. Effectiveness of aerosol reduction by a personal ventilation hood. RESULTS: Results for the 0.5-5 μm aerosol range. Quiet breathing and talking demonstrated very low increase in aerosols (< 0.1 particles/mL). Aerosol generation was low for wet coughing (0.1 particles/mL), O2 15 L/min via face mask (0.18 particles/mL), and high flow nasal O2 60 L/min (0.24 particles/mL). Non-invasive ventilation generated moderate aerosols (29.7 particles/mL) and nebulisation very high aerosols (1086 particles/mL); the personal ventilation hood reduced the aerosol counts by 98% to 0.5 particles/mL and 8.9 particles/mL respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this human volunteer study, the administration of O2 15 L/min by face mask and 60 L/min nasal therapy did not increase aerosol generation beyond low levels. Non-invasive ventilation caused moderate aerosol generation and nebulisation therapy very high aerosol generation. The personal ventilation hood reduced the aerosol counts by at least 98%.
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    Effectiveness of portable air filtration on reducing indoor aerosol transmission: preclinical observational trials
    Lee, JH ; Rounds, M ; McGain, F ; Schofield, R ; Skidmore, G ; Wadlow, I ; Kevin, K ; Stevens, A ; Marshall, C ; Irving, L ; Kainer, M ; Buising, K ; Monty, J (W B SAUNDERS CO LTD, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: While the range of possible transmission pathways of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in various settings has been investigated thoroughly, most authorities have recently acknowledged the role of aerosol spread in its transmission, especially in indoor environments where ventilation is poor. Engineering controls are needed to mitigate aerosol transmission in high-risk settings including hospital wards, classrooms and offices. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of aerosol filtration by portable air cleaning devices with high-efficiency particulate air filters used in addition to a standard building heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. METHODS: Test rooms, including a single-bed hospital room, were filled with test aerosol to simulate aerosol movement. Aerosol counts were measured over time with various portable air cleaning devices and room ventilation systems to quantify the overall aerosol clearance rate. FINDINGS: Portable air cleaning devices were very effective for removal of aerosols. The aerosols were cleared five times faster in a small control room with portable air cleaning devices than in the room with HVAC alone. The single-bed hospital room had an excellent ventilation rate (∼14 air changes per hour) and cleared the aerosols in 20 min. However, with the addition of two air cleaning devices, the clearance time was three times faster. CONCLUSIONS: Inexpensive portable air cleaning devices should be considered for small and enclosed spaces in healthcare settings, such as inpatient rooms and personal protective equipment donning/doffing stations. Portable air cleaning devices are particularly important where there is limited ability to reduce aerosol transmission with building HVAC ventilation.
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    A prospective clinical evaluation of a patient isolation hood during the COVID-19 pandemic
    McGain, F ; Bates, S ; Lee, JH ; Timms, P ; Kainer, MA ; French, C ; Monty, J (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have frequently become infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 whilst treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A variety of novel devices have been proposed to reduce COVID-19 cross-contamination. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was (i) to test whether patients and HCWs thought that a novel patient isolation hood was safe and comfortable and (ii) to obtain COVID-19 infection data of hospital HCWs. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients, entailing HCW/patient questionnaires and safety aspects of prototype isolation hoods. COVID-19 data of HCWs were prospectively collected. Assessment of the hood's safety and practicality and adverse event reporting was carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures are as follows: questionnaire responses, adverse event reporting, rates of infections in HCWs during the study period (20/6/2020 to 21/7/2020), and COVID-19 infections in HCWs reported until the last recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 in HCWs (20/6/2020 to 27/9/2020). RESULTS: Of the 64 eligible individual HCW surveys, 60 surveys were overall favourable (>75% questions answered in favour of the isolation hood). HCWs were unanimous in perceiving the hood as safe (60/60), preferring its use (56/56), and understanding its potential COVID-19 cross-contamination minimisation (60/60). All eight patients who completed the questionnaire thought the isolation hood helped prevent COVID-19 cross infection and was safe and comfortable. There were no reported patient safety adverse events. The COVID-19 attack rate from 20/6/2020 to 27/9/2020 among registered nurses was as follows: intensive care units (ICUs), 2.2% (3/138); geriatric wards, 13.2% (26/197); and COVID-19 wards, 18.3% (32/175). The COVID-19 attack rate among medical staff was as follows: junior staff, 2.1% (24/932); senior staff, 0.7% (4/607); aged care/rehabilitation, 6.7% (2/30); and all ICU medical staff, 8.6% (3/35). CONCLUSIONS: The isolation hood was preferred to standard care by HCWs and well tolerated by patients, and after the study, isolation hoods became part of standard ICU therapy. There was an association between being an ICU nurse and a low COVID-19 infection rate (no causality implied). ICU HCWs feel safer when treating patients with COVID-19 using an isolation hood.
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    Efficacy of single-component MTV to measure turbulent wall-flow velocity derivative profiles at high resolution
    Elsnab, JR ; Monty, JP ; White, CM ; Koochesfahani, MM ; Klewicki, JC (SPRINGER, 2017-09-01)
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    On the universality of inertial energy in the log layer of turbulent boundary layer and pipe flows
    Chung, D ; Marusic, I ; Monty, JP ; Vallikivi, M ; Smits, AJ (SPRINGER, 2015-07-01)
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    Simulation of large-eddy-break-up device (LEBU) in a moderate Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
    Chin, C ; Monty, J ; HUTCHINS, N ; Ooi, A ; Orlu, R ; Schlatter, P (Springer, 2016-08-11)
    A well-resolved large eddy simulation (LES) of a large-eddy break-up (LEBU) device in a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer is performed with, Reynolds number, based on free-stream velocity and momentum-loss thickness, of R e θ ≈ 4300. The implementation of the LEBU is via an immersed boundary method. The LEBU is positioned at a wall-normal distance of 0.8 δ (δ denoting the local boundary layer thickness at the location of the LEBU) from the wall. The LEBU acts to delay the growth of the turbulent boundary layer and produces global skin friction reduction beyond 180δ downstream of the LEBU, with a peak local skin friction reduction of approximately 12 %. However, no net drag reduction is found when accounting for the device drag of the LEBU in accordance with the towing tank experiments by Sahlin et al. (Phys. Fluids 31, 2814, 1988). Further investigation is performed on the interactions of high and low momentum bulges with the LEBU and the corresponding output is analysed, showing a ‘break-up’ of these large momentum bulges downstream of the LEBU. In addition, results from the spanwise energy spectra show consistent reduction in energy at spanwise length scales for λ+z>1000 independent of streamwise and wall-normal location when compared to the corresponding turbulent boundary layer without LEBU.