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ItemCharacteristics of Reynolds Shear Stress in Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary LayersRomero, S ; Zimmerman, S ; Philip, J ; Klewicki, J (Springer, 2021)The focus of the present work is to characterize the features of the turbulent inertia term (the wall-normal gradient of Reynolds shear stress) through the mean momentum balance and the Reynolds shear stress correlation coefficient (ρuv ). Effects of the Reynolds number and Clauser pressure-gradient parameter, β, are discussed. Large eddy simulations of low Reynolds number adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers from Bobke et al. , low Reynolds number experimental data from Vila et al.  and Volino , and newly acquired experimental data at higher Reynolds number from the Flow Physics Facility at The University of New Hampshire are utilized for this analysis. Observations are compared to zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer direct numerical simulations of Schlatter and Örlu  and Sillero et al. , and experimental data from Zimmerman et al.  and Zimmerman . These cases show that the correlation coefficient (ρuv ) decreases in magnitude with increasing Reynolds number and β. However, from these initial observations we find that ρuv is more sensitive to changes in the Reynolds number in comparison to the examined range of β. We also find that the location of zero-crossing of the turbulent inertia term seems to scale with δ+ while the minimum of ρuv scales with δ.
ItemStress equation based scaling framework for adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layersRomero, SK ; Zimmerman, SJ ; Philip, J ; Klewicki, JC (Elsevier, 2022-02-01)This paper provides a framework for estimating appropriate turbulent velocity scales in adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers (APG TBLs) via a study of the mean stress balance. We examine the velocity scales of APG TBLs using the relationship between the Reynolds shear stress and pressure stress. It is reasoned that as distance from the wall increases the velocity scaling transitions from one dominated by the wall-shear-stress velocity scale, uτ, to a scaling dominated by the pressure stress. A velocity scale, uhyb, is proposed that varies with distance from the wall and combines the wall-shear-stress velocity with a pressure-stress-based velocity. This investigation uses new high Reynolds number (7000≲Reτ≲7800) experimental measurements, existing lower Reynolds number experimental (600≲Reτ≲2000) and computational (Reτ<700) data sets. The proposed velocity scale realizes similarity in the turbulent stress profiles to a degree that is superior to that achievable via any wall-distance-independent velocity scale when considering the full extent of the flow domain.