 Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
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ItemEffects of changing aspect ratio through a wind tunnel contractionCallan, J. ; Marusic, I. (American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics, 2001)No abstract.

ItemA wallwake model for the turbulence structure of boundary layers. Part 2. Further experimental supportMarusic, I. ; Perry, A. E. (Cambridge University Press, 1995)In Part 1 an extension of the attached eddy hypothesis was developed and applied to equilibrium pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. In this paper the formulation is applied to data measured by the authors from nonequilibrium layers and agreement with the extended theory is encouraging. Also power spectra of the Reynolds stresses as developed from the extended theory compare favourably with experiment. The experimental data include a check of coneangle effects by using a flying hot wire.

ItemA wallwake model for the turbulence structure of boundary layers. Part 1. Extension of the attached eddy hypothesisPerry, A. E. ; Marusic, I. (Cambridge University Press, 1995)The attached eddy hypothesis developed for zero pressure gradient boundary layers and for pipe flow is extended here to boundary layers with arbitary streamwise pressure gradients, both favourable and adverse. It is found that in order to obtain the correct quantitative results for all components of the Reynolds stresses, two basiv types of eddy structure geometries are required. The first type, called typeA, is interpreted to give a 'wall structure' and the second, referred to as typeB, gives a 'wake structure'. This is an analogy with the conventional mean velocity formulation of Coles where the velocity is decomposed into a law of the wall and a law of the wake.If the above mean velocity formulation is accepted, then in principle, once the eddy geometries are fixed for the two eddy types, all Reynolds stresses and associated spectra contributed from the attached eddies can be computed without any further empirical constants. This is done by using the momentum equation and certain convolution integrals developed here based on the attached eddy hypothesis. The theory is developed using data from equilibrium and quasiequilibrium flows. In Part 2 the authors' nonequilibrium data are used.

ItemWall turbulence closure based on classical similarity laws and the attached eddy hypothesisPerry, A. E. ; Marusic, I. ; Li, J. D. ( 1994)A new look at the closure problem of turbulent boundary layers is taken here using recently derived analytical expressions for the shear stress distributions. These expressions are based on logarithmic law of the wall and law of the wake formulation of Coles [J. Fluid Mech. 1, 191 (1956)] with the mean continuity and the mean momentum differential and integral equations. The concept of equilibrium layers of Clauser [Adv. Mech. 4, 1 (1956)] is extended and using similar ideas as Rotta [Prog. Aeronaut. Sci. 2, 1(1962)] for selfsimilarity, a closure scheme is proposed for layers developing in arbitrary pressure gradients for the case where the streamwise derivative of the Coles wake factor is not too large. For a given flow case, this Coles wake condition can be tested with internal consistency checks. The mathematical framework is most suitable for incorporating Townsend’s attached eddy hypothesis as recently developed by Perry, Li, and Marusic [Phils. Trans. R. Soc. London. Ser. A 336, 67 (1991)] for closure. This gives an opportunity to incorporate coherent structure concepts into closure schemes. Possible ways of handling the difficult case where the streamwise derivative of the Coles wake factor is significant are discussed.

ItemOn the streamwise evolution of turbulent boundary layers in arbitrary pressure gradientsPerry, A. E. ; Marusic, I. ; Jones, M. B. (Cambridge University Press, 2002)A new approach to the classic closure problem for turbulent boundary layers is presented. This involves, first, using the wellknown meanflow scaling laws such asthe log law of the wall and the law of the wake of Coles (1956) together with the mean continuity and the mean momentum differential and integral equations. The important parameters governing the flow in the general nonequilibrium case are identified and are used for establishing a framework for closure. Initially closure is achieved here empirically and the potential for achieving closure in the future using the wallwake attached eddy model of Perry & Marusic (1995) is outlined. Comparisons are made with experiments covering adversepressuregradient flows in relaxing and developing states and flows approaching equilibrium sink flow. Mean velocity profiles, total shear stress and Reynolds stress profiles can be computed for different streamwise stations, given an initial upstream mean velocity profile and the streamwise variation of freestream velocity. The attached eddy model of Perry & Marusic (1995) can then be utilized, with some refinement, to compute the remaining unknown quantities such as Reynolds normal stresses and associated spectra and crosspower spectra in the fully turbulent part of the flow.

ItemTowards a closure scheme for turbulent boundary layers using the attached eddy hypothesisPerry, A. E. ; Li, J. D. ; Marusic, I. (Royal Society Publishing, 1991)In this paper, an attempt is made to formulate a closure hypothesis for adverse pressure gradient turbulent layers using the attached eddy hypothesis of Townsend and Perry & Chong, which was developed originally for zero pressure gradient layers and parallel duct flows.To the authors’ knowledge, this work represents one of the few attempts to use coherent structure ideas in the formulation of a closure scheme. At present this closure scheme is primitive and many of the assumptions are of an arbituary nature but the analysis at least points out where the difficulties are and which areas need more work.

ItemSimilarity law for the streamwise turbulence intensity in zeropressuregradient turbulent boundary layersMarusic, I. ; Uddin, A. K. M. ; Perry, A. E. ( 1997)A similarity relationship is proposed to describe the streamwise broadbandturbulence intensity in a zeropressuregradient boundary layer. The formulation is applicable to the entire region of the flow beyond the viscous buffer zone and is based on the attached eddy hypothesis, the Reynoldsnumbersimilarity hypothesis and the assumed existence of Kolmogorov eddies with a universal inertial subrange. Experimental data of the authors and those from various published works covering a large Reynolds number range are investigated in light of this formulation.

ItemExperimental study of wall boundary conditions for largeeddy simulationMarusic, I. ; Kunkel, G. J. ; PorteAgel, F. ( 2001)An experimental investigation was conducted to study the wall boundary condition for largeeddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent boundary layer at R = 3500. Most boundary condition formulations for LES require the specification of the instantaneous filtered wall shear stress field based upon the filtered velocity field at the closest grid point above the wall. Three conventional boundary conditions are tested using simultaneously obtained filtered wall shear stress and streamwise and wallnormal velocities, at locations nominally within the log region of the flow. This was done using arrays of hotfilm sensors and xwire probes. The results indicate that models based on streamwise velocity perform better than those using the wallnormal velocity, but overall significant discrepancies were found for all three models. A new model is proposed which gives better agreement with the shear stress measured at the wall. The new model is also based on the streamwise velocity but is formulated so as to be consistent with `outerflow' scaling similarity of the streamwise velocity spectra. It is therefore expected to be more generally applicable over a larger range of Reynolds numbers at any firstgrid position within the log region of the boundary layer.

ItemEvolution and structure of sinkflow turbulent boundary layersJones, M. B. ; MARUSIC, IVAN ; Perry, A. E. ( 2001)An experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulent boundary layers developing in a sinkflow pressure gradient was undertaken. Three flow cases were studied, corresponding to different acceleration strengths. Meanflow measurements were taken for all three cases, while Reynolds stresses and spectra measurements were made for two of the flow cases. In this study attention was focused on the evolution of the layers to an equilibrium turbulent state. All the layers were found to attain a state very close to precise equilibrium. This gave equilibrium sink flow data at higher Reynolds numbers than in previous experiments. The mean velocity profiles were found to collapse onto the conventional logarithmic law of the wall. However, for profiles measured with the Pitot tube, a slight ‘kickup’ from the logarithmic law was observed near the buffer region, whereas the mean velocity profiles measured with a normal hot wire did not exhibit this deviation from the logarithmic law. As the layers approached equilibrium, the mean velocity profiles were found to approach the pure wall profile and for the highest level of acceleration Π was very close to zero, where Π is the Coles wake factor. This supports the proposition of Coles (1957), that the equilibrium sink flow corresponds to pure wall flow. Particular interest was also given to the evolutionary stages of the boundary layers, in order to test and further develop the closure hypothesis of Perry, Marusic & Li (1994). Improved quantitative agreement with the experimental results was found after slight modification of their original closure equation.

ItemCharacteristics of vortex packets in turbulent boundary layersGanapathisubramani, B. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. ( 2003)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure all three instantaneous components of the velocity field in streamwise–spanwise planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Ret =1060 (Re? =2500). Datasets were obtained in the logarithmic layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z+ =92 and 150) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those proposed by Adrian and coworkers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged in the streamwise direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress, sometimes as high as 40 times uw. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to uw while occupying only 4% of the total area at z+ =92. At z+ =150, these patches occupied 4.5% of the total area while contributing 25% to uw. Beyond the log layer (z+ =198 and 530), the spatial organization into packets is seen to break down.