 Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
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ItemEffects of changing aspect ratio through a wind tunnel contractionCallan, J. ; Marusic, I. (American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics, 2001)No abstract.

ItemOn the streamwise evolution of turbulent boundary layers in arbitrary pressure gradientsPerry, A. E. ; Marusic, I. ; Jones, M. B. (Cambridge University Press, 2002)A new approach to the classic closure problem for turbulent boundary layers is presented. This involves, first, using the wellknown meanflow scaling laws such asthe log law of the wall and the law of the wake of Coles (1956) together with the mean continuity and the mean momentum differential and integral equations. The important parameters governing the flow in the general nonequilibrium case are identified and are used for establishing a framework for closure. Initially closure is achieved here empirically and the potential for achieving closure in the future using the wallwake attached eddy model of Perry & Marusic (1995) is outlined. Comparisons are made with experiments covering adversepressuregradient flows in relaxing and developing states and flows approaching equilibrium sink flow. Mean velocity profiles, total shear stress and Reynolds stress profiles can be computed for different streamwise stations, given an initial upstream mean velocity profile and the streamwise variation of freestream velocity. The attached eddy model of Perry & Marusic (1995) can then be utilized, with some refinement, to compute the remaining unknown quantities such as Reynolds normal stresses and associated spectra and crosspower spectra in the fully turbulent part of the flow.

ItemSome predictions of the attached eddy model for a high Reynolds number boundary layerNickels, T. B. ; Marusic, I. ; Hafez, S. ; Hutchins, N. ; Chong, M. S. (Royal Society Publishing, 200701)Many flows of practical interest occur at high Reynolds number, at which the flow inmost of the boundary layer is turbulent, showing apparently random fluctuations invelocity across a wide range of scales. The range of scales over which these fluctuationsoccur increases with the Reynolds number and hence high Reynolds number flows aredifficult to compute or predict. In this paper, we discuss the structure of these flows anddescribe a physical model, based on the attached eddy hypothesis, which makespredictions for the statistical properties of these flows and their variation with Reynoldsnumber. The predictions are shown to compare well with the results from recentexperiments in a new purposebuilt high Reynolds number facility. The model is alsoshown to provide a clear physical explanation for the trends in the data. The limits ofapplicability of the model are also discussed.

ItemExperimental study of wall boundary conditions for largeeddy simulationMarusic, I. ; Kunkel, G. J. ; PorteAgel, F. ( 2001)An experimental investigation was conducted to study the wall boundary condition for largeeddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent boundary layer at R = 3500. Most boundary condition formulations for LES require the specification of the instantaneous filtered wall shear stress field based upon the filtered velocity field at the closest grid point above the wall. Three conventional boundary conditions are tested using simultaneously obtained filtered wall shear stress and streamwise and wallnormal velocities, at locations nominally within the log region of the flow. This was done using arrays of hotfilm sensors and xwire probes. The results indicate that models based on streamwise velocity perform better than those using the wallnormal velocity, but overall significant discrepancies were found for all three models. A new model is proposed which gives better agreement with the shear stress measured at the wall. The new model is also based on the streamwise velocity but is formulated so as to be consistent with `outerflow' scaling similarity of the streamwise velocity spectra. It is therefore expected to be more generally applicable over a larger range of Reynolds numbers at any firstgrid position within the log region of the boundary layer.

ItemEvolution and structure of sinkflow turbulent boundary layersJones, M. B. ; MARUSIC, IVAN ; Perry, A. E. ( 2001)An experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulent boundary layers developing in a sinkflow pressure gradient was undertaken. Three flow cases were studied, corresponding to different acceleration strengths. Meanflow measurements were taken for all three cases, while Reynolds stresses and spectra measurements were made for two of the flow cases. In this study attention was focused on the evolution of the layers to an equilibrium turbulent state. All the layers were found to attain a state very close to precise equilibrium. This gave equilibrium sink flow data at higher Reynolds numbers than in previous experiments. The mean velocity profiles were found to collapse onto the conventional logarithmic law of the wall. However, for profiles measured with the Pitot tube, a slight ‘kickup’ from the logarithmic law was observed near the buffer region, whereas the mean velocity profiles measured with a normal hot wire did not exhibit this deviation from the logarithmic law. As the layers approached equilibrium, the mean velocity profiles were found to approach the pure wall profile and for the highest level of acceleration Π was very close to zero, where Π is the Coles wake factor. This supports the proposition of Coles (1957), that the equilibrium sink flow corresponds to pure wall flow. Particular interest was also given to the evolutionary stages of the boundary layers, in order to test and further develop the closure hypothesis of Perry, Marusic & Li (1994). Improved quantitative agreement with the experimental results was found after slight modification of their original closure equation.

ItemCharacteristics of vortex packets in turbulent boundary layersGanapathisubramani, B. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. ( 2003)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure all three instantaneous components of the velocity field in streamwise–spanwise planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Ret =1060 (Re? =2500). Datasets were obtained in the logarithmic layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z+ =92 and 150) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those proposed by Adrian and coworkers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged in the streamwise direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress, sometimes as high as 40 times uw. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to uw while occupying only 4% of the total area at z+ =92. At z+ =150, these patches occupied 4.5% of the total area while contributing 25% to uw. Beyond the log layer (z+ =198 and 530), the spatial organization into packets is seen to break down.

ItemInvestigation of largescale coherence in a turbulent boundary layer using twopoint correlationsGanapathisubramani, B. ; Hutchins, N. ; Hambleton, W. T. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. (Cambridge University Press, 2005)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in streamwise–spanwise and inclined crossstream planes (inclined at 45◦ and 135◦ to the principal flow direction) of a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Reτ ∼ 1100). Twopoint spatial velocity correlations computed using the PIV data reveal results that are consistent with an earlier study in which packets of hairpin vortices were identified by a featuredetection algorithm in the log region, but not in the outerwake region. Both streamwise–streamwise (Ruu) and streamwise–wallnormal (Ruw)correlations are significant for streamwise displacements of more than 1500 wallunits. Zero crossing data for the streamwise fluctuating component u reveal that streamwise strips between zero crossings of 1500 wall units or longer occur morefrequently for negative u than positive u, suggesting that long streamwise correlations in Ruu are dominated by slower streamwise structures. Additional analysis of Rwwcorrelations suggests that the long streamwise slowmoving regions contain discrete zones of strong upwash over extended streamwise distances, as might occur withinpackets of angled hairpin vortices. At a wallnormal location outside of the log region (z/δ =0.5), the correlations are shorter in the streamwise direction and broader in the spanwise direction. Correlations in the inclined crossstream plane data revealgood agreement with the streamwise–spanwise plane. Ruu in the 45◦ plane is more elongated along the inplane wallnormal direction than in the 135◦ plane, which isconsistent with the presence of hairpin packets with a lowspeed region lifting away from the wall.

ItemSimultaneous orthogonalplane particle image velocimetry measurements in a turbulent boundary layerHambleton, W. T. ; Hutchins, N. ; Marusic, I. (Cambridge University Press, 2006)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken simultaneously in streamwise–spanwise and streamwise–wallnormal planes in a zero pressuregradient turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate. Polarization techniques were employed to allow PIV to be taken in both planes simultaneously. Image preprocessing techniques were used to improve the quality of data near the line of intersection of the planes. Linear stochastic estimation was performed on these data, revealing the streamwise, spanwise, and wallnormal extent of swirl events primarily near the top of the log region of the boundary layer. Swirl events with rotation consistent with the mean vorticity are found to have a large footprint inthe lower limit of the log region whereas swirls with oppositesigned vorticity are found to have little influence lower in the boundary layer. These longtimeaveraged statistics contain features that are consistent with the hairpin packet model (or its kinematic equivalent). This model also seems to provide a reasonable description of many instantaneous events involving largescale coherence, where long regions of streamwise momentum deficit are surrounded by vortex cores.

ItemExperimental investigation of vortex properties in a turbulent boundary layerGanapathisubramani, B. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. (American Institute of Physics, 2006)Dualplane particle image velocimetry experiments were performed in a turbulent boundary layer with Ret =1160 to obtain all components of the velocity gradient tensor. Wallnormal locations in the logarithmic and wake region were examined. The availability of the complete gradient tensor facilitates improved identification of vortex cores and determination of their orientation and size. Inclination angles of vortex cores were computed using statistical tools such as twopoint correlations and joint probability density functions. Also, a vortex identification technique was employed to identify individual cores and to compute inclination angles directly from instantaneous fields. The results reveal broad distributions of inclination angles at both locations. The results are consistent with the presence of many hairpin vortices which are most frequently inclined downstream at an angle of 45 degrees with the wall. According to the probability density functions, a relatively small percentage of cores are inclined upstream. The number density of forward leaning cores decreases from the logarithmic to the outer region while the number density of backwardleaning cores remains relatively constant. These trends, together with the correlation statistics, suggest that the backwardleaning cores are part of smaller, weaker structures that have been distorted and convected by larger, predominantly forwardleaning eddies associated with the local shear.

ItemOn the different contributions of coherentstructures to the spectra of a turbulent round jetand a turbulent boundary layerNickels, T. B. ; MARUSIC, IVAN (Cambridge University Press, 2001)This paper examines and compares spectral measurements from a turbulent round jetand a turbulent boundary layer. The conjecture that is examined is that both flows consist of coherent structures immersed in a background of isotropic turbulence. In the case of the jet, a single size of coherent structure is considered, whereas in the boundary layer there are a range of sizes of geometrically similar structures. The conjecture is examined by comparing experimental measurements of spectra for the two flows with the spectra calculated using models based on simple vortex structures.The universality of the small scales is considered by comparing highwave number experimental spectra. It is shown that these simple structural models give a good account of the turbulent flows.