Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications
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ItemExtremum Seeking From 1922 To 2010Tan, Y ; Moase, WH ; Manzie, C ; Nesic, D ; Mareels, IMY ; Chen, J (IEEE, 2010-01-01)Extremum seeking is a form of adaptive control where the steady-state input-output characteristic is optimized, without requiring any explicit knowledge about this input-output characteristic other than that it exists and that it has an extremum. Because extremum seeking is model free, it has proven to be both robust and effective in many different application domains. Equally being model free, there are clear limitations to what can be achieved. Perhaps paradoxically, although being model free, extremum seeking is a gradient based optimization technique. Extremum seeking relies on an appropriate exploration of the process to be optimized to provide the user with an approximate gradient, and hence the means to locate an extremum. These observations are elucidated in the paper. Using averaging and time-scale separation ideas more generally, the main behavioral characteristics of the simplest (model free) extremum seeking algorithm are established.
ItemA UNIFYING FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF EXTREMUM SEEKING CONTROLLERSNesic, D ; Tan, Y ; Manzie, C ; Mohammadi, A ; Moase, W (IEEE, 2012-01-01)We summarize a unifying design approach to continuous-time extremum seeking that was recently reported by the authors. This approach is based on a feedback control paradigm that was to the best of our knowledge explicitly summarized for the first time in this form in our recent work. This paradigm covers some existing extremum seeking schemes, provides a direct link to off-line optimization and can be used as a unifying framework for design of novel extremum seeking schemes. Moreover, we show that other extremum seeking problem formulations can be interpreted using this unifying viewpoint. We believe that this unifying view will be invaluable to systematically design and analyze extremum seeking controllers in various settings.
ItemA Unifying Approach to Extremum Seeking: Adaptive Schemes Based on Estimation of DerivativesNesic, D ; Tan, Y ; Moase, WH ; Manzie, C (IEEE, 2010-01-01)A unifying, prescriptive framework is presented for the design of a family of adaptive extremum seeking controllers. It is shown how extremum seeking can be achieved by combining an arbitrary continuous optimization method (such as gradient descent or continuous Newton) with an estimator for the derivatives of the unknown steady-state reference-to-output map. A tuning strategy is presented for the controller parameters that ensures non-local convergence of all trajectories to the vicinity of the extremum. It is shown that this tuning strategy leads to multiple time scales in the closed-loop dynamics, and that the slowest time scale dynamics approximate the chosen continuous optimization method. Results are given for both static and dynamic plants. For simplicity, only single-input-single-output (SISO) plants are considered.
ItemExtremum Seeking Methods for Online Automotive CalibrationManzie, C ; Moase, W ; Shekhar, R ; Mohammadi, A ; Nesic, D ; Tan, Y ; Waschl, H ; Kolmanovsky, I ; Steinbuch, M ; del Re, L (Springer, 2014-01-01)The automotive calibration process is becoming increasingly difficult as the degrees of freedom in modern engines rises with the number of actuators. This is coupled with the desire to utilise alternative fuels to gasoline and diesel for the promise of lower CO2 levels in transportation. However, the range of fuel blends also leads to variability in the combustion properties, requiring additional sensing and calibration effort for the engine control unit (ECU). Shifting some of the calibration effort online whereby the engine controller adjusts its operation to account for the current operating conditions may be an effective alternative if the performance of the controller can be guaranteed within some performance characteristics. This tutorial chapter summarises recent developments in extremum seeking control, and investigates the potential of these methods to address some of the complexity in developing fuel-flexible controllers for automotive powertrains.
ItemNon-local stability of a multi-variable extremum-seeking schemeMoase, WH ; Tan, Y ; Nešić, D ; Manzie, C (IEEE, 2011-12-01)This paper considers non-local stability of a simple extremum-seeking (ES) scheme acting on a multiple-input single-output (MISO) plant. The scheme acts to approximately minimise the plant output, utilising a vector of periodic dithers to locally explore a map of the steady-state plant response. In a similar fashion to a previous result for single-input single-output (SISO) plants, semi-global practical asymptotic (SPA) stability (with respect to the design parameters) is demonstrated for the closed-loop system. In order to achieve this result, the dither is required to satisfy a condition similar to persistency of excitation (PE) conditions appearing in the adaptive control literature. A variety of dithers satisfying and failing to satisfy this condition are discussed. A simulation example is used to demonstrate these results.