Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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    Evolution of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of an axisymmetric turbulent jet
    Khashehchi, M ; Ooi, A ; Soria, J ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2013-01-01)
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    On the universality of inertial energy in the log layer of turbulent boundary layer and pipe flows
    Chung, D ; Marusic, I ; Monty, JP ; Vallikivi, M ; Smits, AJ (SPRINGER, 2015-07-01)
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    Simultaneous micro-PIV measurements and real-time control trapping in a cross-slot channel
    Akbaridoust, F ; Philip, J ; Hill, DRA ; Marusic, I (Springer, 2018-12-01)
    Here we report novel micro-PIV measurements around micron-sized objects that are trapped at the centre of a stagnation point flow generated in a cross-slow microchannel using real-time control. The method enables one to obtain accurate velocity and strain rate fields around the trapped objects under straining flows. In previous works, it has been assumed that the flow field measured in the absence of the object is the one experienced by the object in the stagnation point flow. However, the results reveal that this need not be the case and typically the strain rates experienced by the objects are higher. Therefore, simultaneously measuring the flow field around a trapped object is needed to accurately estimate the undisturbed strain rate (away from the trapped object). By combining the micro-PIV measurements with an analytical solution by Jeffery (Proc R Soc Lond A 102(715):161–179, 1922), we are able to estimate the velocity and strain rate around the trapped object, thus providing a potential fluidic method for characterising mechanical properties of micron-sized materials, which are important in biological and other applications.
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    Structure Inclination Angles in the Convective Atmospheric Surface Layer
    Chauhan, K ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, J ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2013-04-01)
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    Towards fully-resolved PIV measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers with DSLR cameras
    de Silva, CM ; Grayson, K ; Scharnowski, S ; Kaehler, CJ ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2018-06-01)
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    Towards Reconciling the Large-Scale Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers in the Atmosphere and Laboratory
    Hutchins, N ; Chauhan, K ; Marusic, I ; Monty, J ; Klewicki, J (SPRINGER, 2012-11-01)
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    Wall-drag measurements of smooth- and rough-wall turbulent boundary layers using a floating element
    Baars, WJ ; Squire, DT ; Talluru, KM ; Abbassi, MR ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2016)
    The mean wall shear stress, $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w , is a fundamental variable for characterizing turbulent boundary layers. Ideally, $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w is measured by a direct means and the use of floating elements has long been proposed. However, previous such devices have proven to be problematic due to low signal-to-noise ratios. In this paper, we present new direct measurements of $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w where high signal-to-noise ratios are achieved using a new design of a large-scale floating element with a surface area of 3 m (streamwise) × 1 m (spanwise). These dimensions ensure a strong measurement signal, while any error associated with an integral measurement of $$øverlineτ _w$$ τ ¯ w is negligible in Melbourne’s large-scale turbulent boundary layer facility. Wall-drag induced by both smooth- and rough-wall zero-pressure-gradient flows are considered. Results for the smooth-wall friction coefficient, $$C_f \equiv øverlineτ _w/q_\infty $$ C f ≡ τ ¯ w / q ∞ , follow a Coles–Fernholz relation $$C_f = \left[ 1/κ \ln \left( Re_θ \right) + C\right] ^-2$$ C f = 1 / κ ln R e θ + C - 2 to within 3 % ( $$κ = 0.38$$ κ = 0.38 and $$C = 3.7$$ C = 3.7 ) for a momentum thickness-based Reynolds number, $$Re_θ > 15,000$$ R e θ > 15 , 000 . The agreement improves for higher Reynolds numbers to <1 % deviation for $$Re_θ > 38,000$$ R e θ > 38 , 000 . This smooth-wall benchmark verification of the experimental apparatus is critical before attempting any rough-wall studies. For a rough-wall configuration with P36 grit sandpaper, measurements were performed for $$10,500< Re_θ < 88,500$$ 10 , 500 < R e θ < 88 , 500 , for which the wall-drag indicates the anticipated trend from the transitionally to the fully rough regime.
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    Wavelet analysis of wall turbulence to study large-scale modulation of small scales
    Baars, WJ ; Talluru, KM ; Hutchins, N ; Marusic, I (SPRINGER, 2015-10-01)
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    Spatial averaging effects on the streamwise and wall-normal velocity measurements in a wall-bounded turbulence using a cross-wire probe
    Baidya, R ; Philip, J ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, JP ; Marusic, I (IOP Publishing, 2019-08-01)
    The spatial averaging effects due to a cross-wire probe on the measured turbulence statistics in a wall-bounded flow are investigated using a combined approach of direct numerical simulation data, theoretical methods and experiments. In particular, the wire length (l), spacing ( ) and angle ( ) of a cross-wire probe configured to measure the streamwise and wall-normal velocities are systematically varied to isolate effects of each parameter. The measured streamwise velocity from a cross-wire probe is found to be an average of the filtered velocities sensed by the two wires. Thus, in general, an increase in the sensor dimensions when normalised by viscous units leads to an attenuated variance for the streamwise velocity ( ), resulting from a larger contribution to the spatial averaging process from poorly correlated velocities. In contrast, the variance for the wall-normal velocity ( ) can be amplified, and this is shown to be the result of an additional contributing term (compared to ) due to differences in the filtered wire-normal velocity between the two wires. This additional term leads to a spurious wall-normal velocity signal, resulting in an amplified variance recorded by the cross-wire probe. Compared to the streamwise and wall-normal velocity variances, the Reynolds shear stress ( ) perhaps surprisingly shows less variation when l, and are varied. The robustness of Reynolds shear stress to the finite sensor size is due to two effects: (i) Reynolds shear stress is devoid of energetic contributions from the near-isotropic fine scales unlike the and statistics, hence cross-wire probe dimensions are typically sufficiently small in terms of viscous unit to adequately capture the statistics for a range of l and investigated; (ii) the dependency arises due to cross terms between the filtered velocities from two wires, however, it turns out that these terms cancel one another in the case of Reynolds shear stress, but not for the and statistics. We note that this does not, however, suggest that is easier to measure accurately than the normal stresses; on the contrary, in a companion paper (Baidya et al 2019 Meas. Sci. Technol. 30 085301) we show that measurements are more prone to errors due to uncertainty in probe geometry and calibration procedure.
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    Sensitivity of turbulent stresses in boundary layers to cross-wire probe uncertainties in the geometry and calibration procedure
    Baidya, R ; Philip, J ; Hutchins, N ; Monty, JP ; Marusic, I (IOP Publishing, 2019-08-01)
    The sensitivity of measured turbulent stresses to uncertainties in the probe geometry and calibration procedure is investigated for a cross-wire probe in a turbulent boundary layer using direct numerical simulation data. The errors investigated are guided by experiments, and to replicate the full experimental procedure, the cross-wire calibration procedure is simulated to generate a voltage-to-velocity mapping function, which is then utilised to calculate the measured velocity from simulated cross-wire voltages. We show that wire misalignment can lead to an incorrect mean wall-normal velocity and Reynolds shear stress in the near-wall region due to the presence of shear. Furthermore, we find that misalignment in the wire orientation cannot be fully accounted for through the calibration procedure, presumably due to increased sensitivity to an out-of-plane velocity component. This has strong implications if using a generic commercial cross-wire probe, since inclining these probes to gain access to the near-wall region can lead to a large error (up to 10%) in turbulent stresses and these errors can manifest in the log region and beyond to half the boundary layer thickness. For uncertainties introduced during the calibration procedure, the Reynolds shear stress is observed to exhibit an elevated sensitivity compared with other turbulent stresses. This is consistent with empirical observations where the repeatability in the Reynolds shear stress is found to be the poorest.