Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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    Inclined cross-stream stereo particle image velocimetry measurements in turbulent boundary layers
    Hutchins, N. ; Hambleton, W. T. ; MARUSIC, IVAN (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
    This work can be viewed as a reprise of Head & Bandyopadhyay’s (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 107, 1981, p. 297) original boundary-layer visualization study although in this instance we make use of stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV), techniques to obtain a quantitative view of the turbulent structure. By arranging the laser light-sheet and image plane of a stereo PIV system in inclined spanwise/wall-normal planes (inclined at both 45° and 135° to the streamwise axis) a unique quantitative view of the turbulent boundary layer is obtained. Experiments are repeated across a range of Reynolds numbers, Reτ ≈690–2800. Despite numerous experimental challenges (due to the large out-of-plane velocity components), mean flow and Reynolds stress profiles indicate that the salient features of the turbulent flow have been well resolved. The data are analysed with specific attention to a proposed hairpin eddy model. In-plane two-dimensional swirl is used to identify vortical eddy structures piercing the inclined planes. The vast majority of this activity occurs in the 135° plane, indicating an inclined eddy structure, and Biot-Savart law calculations are carried out to aid in the discussion. Conditional averaging and linear stochastic estimation results also support the presence of inclined eddies, arranged about low-speed regions. In the 135° plane, instantaneous swirl patterns exhibit a predisposition for counter-rotating vortex pairs (arranged with an ejection at their confluence). Such arrangements are consistent with the hairpin packet model. Correlation and scaling results show outer-scaling to be the correct way to quantify the characteristic spanwise length scale across the log and wake regions of the boundary layers (for the range of Reynolds numbers tested). A closer investigation of two-point velocity correlation contours indicates the occurrence of a distinct two-regime behaviour, in which contours (and hence streamwise velocity fluctuations) either appear to be ‘attached’ to the buffer region, or ‘detaching’ from it. The demarcation between these two regimes is found to scale well with outer variables. The results are consistent with a coherent structure that becomes increasingly uncoupled (or decorrelated) from the wall as it grows beyond the logarithmic region, providing additional support for a wall–wake description of turbulent boundary layers.
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    New evolution equations for turbulent boundary layers in arbitrary pressure gradients
    Perry, A. E. ; Marusic, I. ; Jones, M. B. (Indian Academy of Sciences, 1998)
    A new approach to the classical closure problem for turbulent boundary layers is presented. This involves using the well-known mean-flow scaling laws such as Prandtl's law of the wall and the law of the wake of Coles together with the mean continuity and the mean momentum differential and integral equations. The important parameters governing the flow in the general non-equilibrium case are identified and are used for establishing a framework for closure. Initially, closure is done here empirically from the data but the framework is most suitable for applying the attached eddy hypothesis in future work. How this might be done is indicated here.