 Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
Mechanical Engineering  Research Publications
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ItemSome predictions of the attached eddy model for a high Reynolds number boundary layerNickels, T. B. ; Marusic, I. ; Hafez, S. ; Hutchins, N. ; Chong, M. S. (Royal Society Publishing, 200701)Many flows of practical interest occur at high Reynolds number, at which the flow inmost of the boundary layer is turbulent, showing apparently random fluctuations invelocity across a wide range of scales. The range of scales over which these fluctuationsoccur increases with the Reynolds number and hence high Reynolds number flows aredifficult to compute or predict. In this paper, we discuss the structure of these flows anddescribe a physical model, based on the attached eddy hypothesis, which makespredictions for the statistical properties of these flows and their variation with Reynoldsnumber. The predictions are shown to compare well with the results from recentexperiments in a new purposebuilt high Reynolds number facility. The model is alsoshown to provide a clear physical explanation for the trends in the data. The limits ofapplicability of the model are also discussed.

ItemSimilarity law for the streamwise turbulence intensity in zeropressuregradient turbulent boundary layersMarusic, I. ; Uddin, A. K. M. ; Perry, A. E. ( 1997)A similarity relationship is proposed to describe the streamwise broadbandturbulence intensity in a zeropressuregradient boundary layer. The formulation is applicable to the entire region of the flow beyond the viscous buffer zone and is based on the attached eddy hypothesis, the Reynoldsnumbersimilarity hypothesis and the assumed existence of Kolmogorov eddies with a universal inertial subrange. Experimental data of the authors and those from various published works covering a large Reynolds number range are investigated in light of this formulation.

ItemEvolution and structure of sinkflow turbulent boundary layersJones, M. B. ; MARUSIC, IVAN ; Perry, A. E. ( 2001)An experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulent boundary layers developing in a sinkflow pressure gradient was undertaken. Three flow cases were studied, corresponding to different acceleration strengths. Meanflow measurements were taken for all three cases, while Reynolds stresses and spectra measurements were made for two of the flow cases. In this study attention was focused on the evolution of the layers to an equilibrium turbulent state. All the layers were found to attain a state very close to precise equilibrium. This gave equilibrium sink flow data at higher Reynolds numbers than in previous experiments. The mean velocity profiles were found to collapse onto the conventional logarithmic law of the wall. However, for profiles measured with the Pitot tube, a slight ‘kickup’ from the logarithmic law was observed near the buffer region, whereas the mean velocity profiles measured with a normal hot wire did not exhibit this deviation from the logarithmic law. As the layers approached equilibrium, the mean velocity profiles were found to approach the pure wall profile and for the highest level of acceleration Π was very close to zero, where Π is the Coles wake factor. This supports the proposition of Coles (1957), that the equilibrium sink flow corresponds to pure wall flow. Particular interest was also given to the evolutionary stages of the boundary layers, in order to test and further develop the closure hypothesis of Perry, Marusic & Li (1994). Improved quantitative agreement with the experimental results was found after slight modification of their original closure equation.

ItemCharacteristics of vortex packets in turbulent boundary layersGanapathisubramani, B. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. ( 2003)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure all three instantaneous components of the velocity field in streamwise–spanwise planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Ret =1060 (Re? =2500). Datasets were obtained in the logarithmic layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z+ =92 and 150) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those proposed by Adrian and coworkers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged in the streamwise direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress, sometimes as high as 40 times uw. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to uw while occupying only 4% of the total area at z+ =92. At z+ =150, these patches occupied 4.5% of the total area while contributing 25% to uw. Beyond the log layer (z+ =198 and 530), the spatial organization into packets is seen to break down.

ItemInvestigation of largescale coherence in a turbulent boundary layer using twopoint correlationsGanapathisubramani, B. ; Hutchins, N. ; Hambleton, W. T. ; Longmire, E. K. ; Marusic, I. (Cambridge University Press, 2005)Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in streamwise–spanwise and inclined crossstream planes (inclined at 45◦ and 135◦ to the principal flow direction) of a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Reτ ∼ 1100). Twopoint spatial velocity correlations computed using the PIV data reveal results that are consistent with an earlier study in which packets of hairpin vortices were identified by a featuredetection algorithm in the log region, but not in the outerwake region. Both streamwise–streamwise (Ruu) and streamwise–wallnormal (Ruw)correlations are significant for streamwise displacements of more than 1500 wallunits. Zero crossing data for the streamwise fluctuating component u reveal that streamwise strips between zero crossings of 1500 wall units or longer occur morefrequently for negative u than positive u, suggesting that long streamwise correlations in Ruu are dominated by slower streamwise structures. Additional analysis of Rwwcorrelations suggests that the long streamwise slowmoving regions contain discrete zones of strong upwash over extended streamwise distances, as might occur withinpackets of angled hairpin vortices. At a wallnormal location outside of the log region (z/δ =0.5), the correlations are shorter in the streamwise direction and broader in the spanwise direction. Correlations in the inclined crossstream plane data revealgood agreement with the streamwise–spanwise plane. Ruu in the 45◦ plane is more elongated along the inplane wallnormal direction than in the 135◦ plane, which isconsistent with the presence of hairpin packets with a lowspeed region lifting away from the wall.

ItemEffective visualization of stereo particle image velocimetry vector fields of a turbulent boundary layerLongmire, E. K. ; Ganapathisubramani, B. ; Marusic, I. ; Urness, T. ; Interrante, V. (Taylor & Francis, 2003)Stereo particle image velocimetry datasets contain threedimensional information over a plane, from which multiple quantities can be derived at each point. The task of visualizing these different parameters simultaneously is challenging, and this inhibits our ability to analyse and derive firm conclusions about the physics of the flow. Currently, the common approach is to view each parameter separately in different images. Such an approach is very inefficient, especially for large fields of view where many important structures and features coexist. In this paper we discuss several ways in which the primary quantities can be viewed simultaneously in the same image. The simplest method is to use different colours for each parameter and to overlay all the different colours on one image. The limitations of such an approach will be described. Other methods considered involve using texture generated from a line integral convolution algorithm to convey instantaneous velocity direction and magnitude. Animated texture is also described, together with variants involving combined colour and outofplane height. The use of height in tandem with colour and animated texture is a useful method in distinguishing the different parameters in the regions of overlap.

ItemOn the role of largescale structures in wall turbulenceMARUSIC, IVAN (American Institute of Physics, 200103)Recent experimental and computational studies by Adrian and coworkers, such as Adrian et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 422, 1 (2000)] and Zhou et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 387, 353 (1999)], have proposed that a dominant structure in wall turbulence is the organization of hairpin vortices in spatially correlated packets or trains of vortices. In this study this scenario is investigated using the attached eddy model of Perry and Marusic [J. Fluid Mech. 298, 361 (1995)] by calculating structure angles, twopoint velocity correlations and autocorrelations and comparing them to experimental measurements across a zeropressuregradient turbulent boundary layer. The results support the conclusion that spatially coherent packets are a statistically significant structure for Reynolds stresses and transport processes in the logarithmic region of the flow.

ItemAn approximate amplitude attenuation correction for hotfilm shear stress sensorsKunkel, G. J. ; Marusic, I. ( 2003)A correction method, based on experimental results, has been developed to remedy the amplitude attenuation that occurs when statically calibrated hotfilm shear stress sensors are used in air. The correction method is necessary in applications where typically two dimensional arrays of measurement points are needed and other sensors, such as hot wires, cannot be employed. The method was developed with a primary aim of obtaining the correct power spectral density of an ensembleaveraged signature from an array of hotfilm shear stress sensors. The hotfilm sensors are corrected by comparing their individual power spectral densities to a reference spectrum obtained with a single hot wire, slightly elevated but within the viscous sublayer of the turbulent boundary layer. The method is verified by comparing the corrected hot film’s turbulence statistics, power spectral density, and correlation coefficients with the corresponding results from the hot wire.