Management and Marketing - Research Publications

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    The Effects of Age and Drug Dependency on the Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction of Adult Streetworkers in Australia
    Cregan, C ; Kulik, CT ; Salinger, D (SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2013-07)
    This multi-method study investigated a sample of adult streetworkers (n = 107) in Melbourne, Australia in 2008. We contacted outdoor prostitutes through four "drop-in" centers run by not-for-profit organizations. Drug use was the over-riding common characteristic of most of these streetworkers. Using emotional labor theory as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that individuals who worked on the streets solely to earn money to buy drugs would experience the highest levels of emotional exhaustion and the lowest levels of job satisfaction. We predicted these effects would be most evident for older drug dependent streetworkers. Content analysis of open-ended interview responses identified acting, age, and drug dependency as key themes. Moderator hierarchical regression analysis of responses to closed-ended questions with tests for mediation supported the hypotheses. It also demonstrated that older drug dependent streetworkers felt most trapped in their occupation and this sense of being locked-in was associated with emotional exhaustion but not with job satisfaction. The evidence that age and drug dependency affects the psychological outcomes associated with streetwork suggests that the efforts of police and the courts will be ineffective in dealing with people whose addiction traps them in an occupation that offers few intrinsic rewards. Decriminalization would encourage police to protect streetworkers from violence. Agencies could seek financial support to provide welfare and exit strategies.
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    When One Size Does Not Fit All: A Problem of Fit Rather than Failure for Voluntary Management Standards
    Simpson, D ; Power, D ; Klassen, R (SPRINGER, 2012-09)
    Voluntary management standards for social and environmental performance ideally help to define and improve firms’ related capabilities. These standards, however, have largely failed to improve such performance as intended. Over-emphasis on institutional factors leading to adoption of these standards has neglected the role of firms’ existing capabilities. External pressures can drive firms to adopt standards more than their technical capacity to employ them. This can lead to problems of “fit” between institutional requirements and a firm’s existing capabilities. We describe a conceptual model that considers the impact of an interaction between a firm’s institutional requirements and its existing capabilities on standards failure. We suggest solutions that align institutional requirements to appropriate governance forms as a means to improve standards success. We contribute to theory by describing the role of firms’ internal capabilities to the success of voluntary management standards and the reliability of self-regulation generally.
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    Ignored Faces Produce Figural Face Aftereffects
    Murray, JE ; Judge, M ; Chen, Y ; Barton, JJS (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-09-21)
    Following adaptation to faces with contracted (or expanded) internal features, faces previously perceived as normal appear distorted in the opposite direction. This figural face aftereffect suggests face-coding mechanisms adapt to changes in the spatial relations of features and/or the global structure of faces. Here, we investigated whether the figural aftereffect requires spatial attention. Participants ignored a distorted adapting face and performed a highly demanding letter-count task. Before and after adaptation, participants rated the normality of morphed distorted faces ranging from 50% contracted through undistorted to 50% expanded. A robust aftereffect was observed. These results suggest that the figural face aftereffect can occur in the absence of spatial attention, even when the attentional demands of the relevant task are high.
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    The development of post-project buyer-seller interaction in service-intensive projects
    Ojansivu, I ; Alajoutsijärvi, K ; Salo, J (Elsevier BV, 2013-11-01)
    The purpose of this research is to enhance the understanding of post-project buyer-seller interaction, a topic previously studied mainly from the perspective of social exchange or sleeping relationships. With the advent of service-intensive projects, however, the dynamics of post-project interaction has changed, demanding a broader theorization. This research extends the scope of project marketing, by proposing a research framework illustrating interaction development in a longitudinal setting. We utilize the framework to analyze three projects, two of which continued for more than a decade, through a qualitative case study. The research provides empirical insight into the interaction orientations and development patterns arising in the post-project stage. It suggests that post-project interaction develops through three main orientations (cooperative development, buyer-led development, and seller-led maintenance) that vary over time, thus creating unique development patterns. The study concludes with five practical recommendations for managers to deal with evolving post-project interaction.
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    Led into Temptation? Rewarding Brand Logos Bias the Neural Encoding of Incidental Economic Decisions
    Murawski, C ; Harris, PG ; Bode, S ; Dominguez D, JF ; Egan, GF ; Zhan, W (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-03-30)
    Human decision-making is driven by subjective values assigned to alternative choice options. These valuations are based on reward cues. It is unknown, however, whether complex reward cues, such as brand logos, may bias the neural encoding of subjective value in unrelated decisions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we subliminally presented brand logos preceding intertemporal choices. We demonstrated that priming biased participants' preferences towards more immediate rewards in the subsequent temporal discounting task. This was associated with modulations of the neural encoding of subjective values of choice options in a network of brain regions, including but not restricted to medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings demonstrate the general susceptibility of the human decision making system to apparently incidental contextual information. We conclude that the brain incorporates seemingly unrelated value information that modifies decision making outside the decision-maker's awareness.
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    Validación preliminar del IIESS-R. Una nueva medida de la inteligencia emocional [Preliminary Validation of the IIESS-R. A new measurement of emotional intelligence]
    Sojo, V ; Guarino, L (Federación Española de Asociaciones de Psicología, 2006)
    El presente trabajo reporta la revisión y validación del IIESS, inventario construido para medir la Inteligencia Emocional (Sojo y Steinkopf, 2002), basado en el modelo de Mayer, Caruso y Salovey (1999). La validación del contenido de los items se realizó con jueces expertos. El análisis factorial de la versión preliminar de 103 items, con una muestra de 109 participantes, mostró la presencia de tres factores. Considerando la gran cantidad de items redactados negativamente cargados en un mismo factor, se hicieron nuevos análisis con la misma muestra, derivando una escala de 36 items. Un análisis factorial posterior, con una muestra independiente de 292 personas, reveló que el IIESS-R está conformado por tres dimensiones: Percepción de Emociones de Otras Personas, Percepción de las Propias Emociones y Manejo Emocional. Para la validación concurrente de esta versión se emplearon cuestionarios de personalidad, con resultados acordes a lo esperado, reflejando la validez de este instrumento.
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    Pacientes oncológicos con diagnostico reciente: Valoración e intervención sobre la depresión, ansiedad y calidad de vida a través de un programa preventivo de intervención
    Lugo, M ; Alizo, J ; Martinez, D ; Sojo, V (Sociedad Venezolana de Psiquiatria, 2006)
    La presente investigación tiene como objetivos: 1. Medir niveles de ansiedad, depresión y calidad de vida en pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer. 2. Aplicar y valorar la efectividad de un programa de prevención psicológica secundaria, sobre los niveles de ansiedad, depresión y calidad de vida en los pacientes participantes. Método: Se trabajó con una muestra de 28 pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer, 11 pacientes no culminaron el estudio, los 17 pacientes restantes fueron divididos en forma accidental en dos grupos: experimental y contról, con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y 75 años, de ambos sexos y provenientes del Hospital Militar "Dr. Carlos Arvelo". El diseño empleado fué experimental, de tipo ensayo terapéutico controlado, pre-test y pos-test en dos grupos independientes, y a través de la ejecución de un programa de intervención secundario para obtener consecuencias en los niveles de depresión, ansiedad y calidad de vida en los pacientes del grupo experimental, y compararlos con los del grupo control, evaluados a través de la escala HAD y Karnofsky. Resultados: indican que el programa de intervención secundaria es efectivo al lograr disminuir los niveles de depresión, ansiedad y mejorar la calidad de vida en pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer. Con hallazgos estadísticamente significativos entre el pre-test y pos-test del grupo experimental, post intervención. Present investigation has three objectives. 1. To measure levels of anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with recent diagnosis of cancer. 2. To apply and value effectivity of a secondary programme of psychological prevention, upon levels of anxiety, depression and quality of life on study subjects. Method: a sample of 28 subjects with recent diagnosis of cancer, 11 subjects did not finish the study, 17 remaining subjects were divided in an accidental fashion in one experimental group and one control group with ages between 20 and 75 years, both sexes attending the Military Hospital "Dr. Carlos Arvelo" at Caracas, Venezuela. It is an experimental study design, of the controlled therapeutic essay, pre-test and pos-test on two independent groups, by means of the execution of a secondary intervention programme in order to obtain consequences on levels of depression, anxiety and quality of life on subjects in the experimental group compared with the control group, evaluated through HAM-D and Karnofsky Quality of Life Scale.
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    Nominal wage rigidity prior to compulsory arbitration: Evidence from the Victorian Railways, 1902-1921
    Seltzer, A ; Sammartino, AS (Springer, 2011)
    Studies across a wide range of countries have shown that relatively few workers have received year-to-year wage cuts since the Second World War. However, there is very little micro-level evidence from earlier years, when lower inflation rates and a less regulated labour market may have led to stronger downwards pressure on wages. This paper examines wage adjustment at the Victorian Railways, Australia, between 1902 and 1921. It is shown that, despite strong downwards pressure on wages, nominal wages were rigid downwards and a high proportion of triennial wage changes were exactly zero. Even for workers with very long tenure and in years when the national price level declined, wage cuts were rare. We also show that the characteristics of workers whose wages were unchanged were very similar to those receiving wage cuts. Finally, we show that unlike the wages of incumbent staff, entry wages for new junior staff frequently declined from year to year.
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    Flexible Footprints: Reconfiguring MNCs for New Value Opportunities
    Maitland, E ; Sammartino, A (Sage, 2012)
    Powerful technological, regulatory, and economic forces compel the senior executives of multinational corporations (MNCs) to repeatedly re-evaluate and reconfigure value chains in the search for ongoing competitive advantage. However, releasing assets from existing activities and redeploying them to new opportunities is a challenging and poorly understood task. In particular, the standard strategic management concepts of use- and firm-flexibility overlook the crucial international dimension of location. Utilizing examples from GM, Qantas, and a mining MNC, this article argues that strategic flexibility should be consciously measured along all three dimensions. By using the decision tool set out in this article, MNC executives can map their worldwide footprint of strategic roadblocks and opportunities to expand into new markets, divest redundant businesses, and build flexibility to adapt to future challenges.
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    Work and Wages at a Melbourne Factory, the Guest Biscuit Works 1870-1921
    Fahey, C ; Sammartino, A (Wiley, 2013)
    The story of wages in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Australia has largely been told through official published statistics and the experiences of skilled artisans and construction labourers. Utilising wage book data from an early successful manufacturing plant - a biscuit factory - we reveal the earning histories of several neglected groups of Australian workers. We specifically investigate the effects of the 1890s depression, the introduction of a wages board, and shifting demographics on the wages of unskilled factory hands, women, juvenile workers, and commercial clerks. We demonstrate that typical Australian wage series studies have misinterpreted the impact of these phenomena.