Management and Marketing - Research Publications

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    Addressing Climate Change with Behavioral Science: A Global Intervention Tournament in 63 Countries
    Chow, D (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2024)
    Effectively reducing climate change requires dramatic, global behavior change. Yet it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions’ effectiveness was small, largely limited to non-climate-skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened most by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior–several interventions even reduced tree planting. Finally, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people’s initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors.
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    How does fairness promote innovative behavior in organizational change?: The importance of social context
    Kim, M ; Choi, D ; Guay, RP ; Chen, A (Wiley, 2023)
    This study examined how and when employee perceptions of change fairness increase their engagement in innovative behavior during organizational change. Drawing upon fairness heuristic theory, we suggest that change fairness plays a pivotal role as a key heuristic about trustworthiness of leaders and managers in motivating employees to engage in innovative behavior. We also suggest that this change fairness effect becomes stronger or weaker depending on social contexts (change norms, change norm strength, and status differentiation) within a group. Our findings from survey data (N = 318; 35 teams) supported our hypotheses, showing that change fairness is positively related to innovative behavior and that this relationship becomes weaker when (a) group members demonstrate supportive behaviors for the planned change on average (positive change norms), (b) all group members uniformly demonstrate change-supportive behaviors (strong change norms), and (c) group members' social status perceptions are similar (low status differentiation). We provide insights into theory development and change implementation in practice by highlighting the crucial role of fairness as a key decision heuristic about the trustworthiness of management and demonstrating how social contexts substitute the fairness effect on innovative behavior.
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    Anti-racism as an organising principle: Racial inequality in and around organisations
    Evans, M ; Liu, H ; Sojo, V ; Heyden, M (SAGE Publications, 2024)
    We start this special issue with an acknowledgement of the Traditional Owners of the Land on which we, the four co-editors, live and write: the Wiradjuri people of the southern Wiradjuri Nation lands, the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin Nation and the Kombumerri people of the Yugambeh language region. Sovereignty was never ceded. We are stuck. Let’s face it. Stuck inside the belly of the colonial project (i.e. powerful ethno-nations’ practices of dispossession of land, settling of their people on the conquered territory and domination of the original custodians of the land through violent, structural and normative means). Even now, especially now, the aims of the colonial project reverberate across our society, our institutions and our organisations and shape our lives. Those aims were brought to these shores with the purpose of extinguishing what already existed. The wholesale denial of First National sovereignty, cultures, languages, livelihoods and humanity lay a veneer over colonised countries. This false foundation is the canvas on which the business model of the colonial project has taken root (O’Sullivan, 2021), with its business strategies settler colonialism, extractive colonialism, missionary colonialism (Shoemaker, 2015), making money and setting the pace for what success looks like in the colonised nations. [From Introduction to the special issue]
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    Information or pressure? The effect of director experience on CEO CSR compensation adoption and design
    Li, Z ; Yang, L (Wiley, 2023)
    We investigate the impact of director experience in integrating social responsibility criteria into CEO compensation (corporate social responsibility [CSR] contracting) in other firms on the adoption and design of CSR contracting within focal firms and address the question of whether such experience brings information or pressure to focal firms. Using hand‐collected data of a sample from the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 index, we find that director experience is positively associated with the likelihood of CSR contracting adoption. This effect is particularly pronounced in challenging situations where firms require more information for the adoption, such as when they have diverse stakeholders with varying CSR interests and operate in unpredictable market environments. Additionally, director experience has a positive effect on the use of quantitative CSR targets in initial contract design, especially in these challenging scenarios. Interestingly, the positive effect of director experience on CSR contracting adoption does not vary with firms’ peer legitimacy pressure. Our findings suggest that director CSR contracting experience provides valuable information that fosters learning rather than imposing institutional pressure that leads to isomorphism when firms make CSR contracting decisions. By disentangling the intertwined role of director experience, our research offers insights into how it influences the adoption and design of innovative management control practices within firms.
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    How fear of Covid‐19 predicts differential attitudes between nonphysician healthcare workers and other essential occupations
    Ng, GTT ; Chow, DYL (Wiley, 2023-11-30)
    We examine two competing hypotheses about how individual differences in fear of Covid‐19 influence attitudes toward nurses, hospital janitors and garbage collectors. On one hand, fear of Covid‐19 can predict less warmth toward nurses because fear may lead to avoidance and contempt. On the other hand, fear of Covid‐19 can predict greater warmth toward nurses because greater fear of Covid‐19 could alternatively imply greater cognizance of the contribution that nurses make, and the risk they undertake. Also, we hypothesize that fear of Covid‐19 does not predict greater warmth toward hospital janitors or garbage collectors. Findings of two studies (cross‐sectional and longitudinal) generally showed that increased fear of Covid‐19 (mainly on the psychological dimension) predicted greater warmth toward nurses, but not toward hospital janitors and garbage collectors. In the pandemic context, it appears that healthcare workers directly involved in patient care are not so much stigmatized, as appreciated, for their risk and contribution. However, other essential workers that are not involved in direct patient care appear less valued.
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    Taking the long view of the multinational
    Sammartino, A ; Merrett, D ; van der Eng, P ; Ville, S (EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2023-03-20)
    Purpose This paper argues for the benefits to international business (IB) of taking a much longer view at the engagement by multinational enterprises (MNEs) with host locations. Design/methodology/approach The authors showcase a project tracking the engagement by MNEs with Australia over the past two centuries. Extensive archival work has been undertaken to identify and document modes of entry, home countries, industries, operational modes and company types among the MNEs operating in Australia. The authors also describe the shifting nature of Australia as a host location. Findings The authors demonstrate the historical and ongoing diversity of ways in which MNEs interact with a host. They show that different organisational forms have prevailed over time, and that considerable operational mode changes can best be observed when a long lens is adopted. The authors show how these mode changes interact with host country dynamics, and also the broader context of the MNE and its altering strategies. Research limitations/implications The authors urge IB scholars to embrace longer timeframes to capture the complexity of MNEs’ growth and adaptation more meaningfully. Originality/value By taking such a long-run perspective, the authors shed new light on the importance of moving beyond simple snapshots to analyse key IB constructs and phenomenon.
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    Toward a "human being to commodity model" as an explanation for men's violent, sexual consumption of women
    Yeh, MA ; Eilert, M ; Vlahos, A ; Baker, SM ; Stovall, T (WILEY, 2021-09)
    Abstract This research proposes a consumer behavior model that highlights how women may be valuated across a continuum of living human being to commodity. We use the social epidemic of men's sexual violence against women to build a model that reframes sexual violence as men's violent consumption of women. Our model describes the process through which men can think about women as a commodity. We propose different paths through which commoditization occurs—men perceiving women as instrumental, interchangeable, and violable, as well as denying their subjectivity and autonomy—which can lead to violent consumption (the commitment of sexual violence). While sexual violence is a complex problem that defies easy solutions, we believe our nuanced and concrete model is more informative to actions to stop sexual violence than existing theories. We also discuss the role of other factors, including the marketplace, in enabling, attenuating, and reversing this process.
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    When “good enough” is not good enough: How maximizing benefits financial well‐being
    Silber, D ; Hoffmann, AOI ; Belli, A (Wiley, 2023)
    A maximizing decision‐making style is generally associated with lower individual well‐being. That is, even though maximizers invest more time and resources in finding the best option and achieve better outcomes than satisficers, they are still more dissatisfied with those outcomes. Contrary to this general consensus that maximizing is negatively associated with overall well‐being, across two studies we show that this decision‐making style is actually positively associated with individuals' financial well‐being. We find that measured dispositional maximizing is positively associated with financial well‐being, regardless of whether maximizing is operationalized as having high standards or the tendency to engage in alternative search (Study 1) and replicate this relationship with experimentally induced situational maximizing (Study 2). We identify financial self‐control (both measured as a trait and as the behavioral outcome of an experimental choice task) as a mediator of the aforementioned relationship. Our findings offer guidance to financial service providers and policymakers on how to improve consumers' financial well‐being, such as encouraging consumers to engage in a more meticulous search while evaluating financial products and services (e.g., home loans, retirement plans, investments) to identify the best possible option.
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    Ethics at the Centre of Global and Local Challenges: Thoughts on the Future of Business Ethics
    Boehm, S ; Carrington, M ; Cornelius, N ; de Bruin, B ; Greenwood, M ; Hassan, L ; Jain, T ; Karam, C ; Kourula, A ; Romani, L ; Riaz, S ; Shaw, D (SPRINGER, 2022-10)
    To commemorate 40 years since the founding of the Journal of Business Ethics, the editors in chief of the journal have invited the editors to provide commentaries on the future of business ethics. This essay comprises a selection of commentaries aimed at creating dialogue around the theme Ethics at the centre of global and local challenges. For much of the history of the Journal of Business Ethics, ethics was seen within the academy as a peripheral aspect of business. However, in recent years, the stakes have risen dramatically, with global and local worlds destabilized by financial crisis, climate change, internet technologies and artificial intelligence, and global health crises. The authors of these commentaries address these grand challenges by placing business ethics at their centre. What if all grand challenges were framed as grand ethical challenges? Tanusree Jain, Arno Kourula and Suhaib Riaz posit that an ethical lens allows for a humble response, in which those with greater capacity take greater responsibility but remain inclusive and cognizant of different voices and experiences. Focussing on business ethics in connection to the grand(est) challenge of environmental emergencies, Steffen Böhm introduces the deceptively simple yet radical position that business is nature, and nature is business. His quick but profound side-step from arguments against human-nature dualism to an ontological undoing of the business-nature dichotomy should have all business ethics scholars rethinking their "business and society" assumptions. Also, singularly concerned with the climate emergency, Boudewijn de Bruin posits a scenario where, 40 years from now, our field will be evaluated by its ability to have helped humanity emerge from this emergency. He contends that Milieudefensie (Friends of the Earth) v. Royal Dutch Shell illustrates how human rights take centre stage in climate change litigation, and how business ethics enters the courtroom. From a consumer ethics perspective, Deirdre Shaw, Michal Carrington and Louise Hassan argue that ecologically sustainable and socially just marketplace systems demand cultural change, a reconsideration of future interpretations of "consumer society", a challenge to the dominant "growth logic" and stimulation of alternative ways to address our consumption needs. Still concerned with global issues, but turning attention to social inequalities, Nelarine Cornelius links the capability approach (CA) to global and corporate governance, arguing that CA will continue to lie at the foundation of human development policy, and, increasingly, CSR and corporate governance. Continuing debate on the grand challenges associated with justice and equality, Laurence Romani identifies a significant shift in the centrality of business ethics in debates on managing (cultural) differences, positing that dialogue between diversity management and international management can ground future debate in business ethics. Finally, the essay concludes with a commentary by Charlotte Karam and Michelle Greenwood on the possibilities of feminist-inspired theories, methods, and positionality for many spheres of business ethics, not least stakeholder theory, to broaden and deepen its capacity for nuance, responsiveness, and transformation. In the words of our commentators, grand challenges must be addressed urgently, and the Journal of Business Ethics should be at the forefront of tackling them.