School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    Reconstituting the Contemporary Corporation through Ecologically Responsive Regulation
    Parker, C ; Haines, F (Thomson Reuters (Professional), 2023)
    Corporate governance and regulation comprise two legal frameworks that operate together from, respectively, the inside out of the corporation and the outside in, to shape business conduct. This article critically analyses two different ways in which corporate governance and business regulation intersect. We argue that both fall short of addressing the ecological and social harms generated by business. The first intersection combines shareholder primacy with domain specific regulation. The second combines a stakeholder model of corporate governance with responsive regulation. Yet, there are signs that a third “ecologically responsive” intersection may emerge to shape business practice in light of the ecological crises we currently face. We see potential for this approach in recent proposals to reform corporate governance to encourage purposive, problem-focused corporations together with greater responsiveness and multiple business forms. To achieve this potential, though, requires a radical re-conceptualisation of regulation towards an “ecologically responsive” approach.
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    Misogyny, Racism and Violent Extremism in Australia
    Meger, S ; Johnston, M ; Riveros-Morales, Y (Faculty of Arts, University of Melbourne, 2024)
    Violent extremism has become one of the most pressing concerns for national security in Australia. Recognised by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), the Australian Department of Home Affairs, and federal and state police as an acute and growing threat, addressing the motivations and pathways of radicalized individuals into violent extremism has become a top security priority. The first objective of Australia’s Safeguarding Our Community Together counter-terrorism strategy is “preventing radicalisation of individuals before an attack takes place, and rehabilitating and reintegrating violent extremist offenders.” The Australian counter-terrorism strategy now recognises violent extremism as coming in many forms, and as politically, religiously, or racially-motivated. The Australian Government’s approach to countering violent extremism focuses on addressing the societal drivers and developing early intervention strategies with vulnerable communities. However, the role of gender is largely unaddressed in this policy environment. Using novel survey data, our research analysed multiple underlying attitudinal drivers to radicalisation and tested the relationship between various attitudes and beliefs purported in the literature to drive radicalisation and their causal effect with support for seven forms of violent extremism amongst the Australian public. Our research finds robust evidence of underlying drivers to radicalisation that can help us better understand the causes of violent extremism and formulate more responsive interventions to prevent violent extremism. Specifically, our research finds that – across the ideological and religious spectrums of those expressing sympathies for violent extremism amongst the Australian population – racist and misogynistic attitudes are strong and significant causal influences. These findings have significant implications for existing preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) policy and strategy, as it provides evidence of not only the prevalence of these biased attitudes amongst the general population, but also shows the urgent need for a holistic approach to redressing racist and misogynistic attitudes as a matter of security urgency.
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    Love Letters: The Romance of Grace Warne & Vernon Hogg 1933-35
    Botsman, P (Working Papers, 2024)
    These letters are a glimpse into another time and place. Passion burned brightly through the hot summer nights and cold winters of Melbourne in 1933-5. Grace Warne and Wilfred John Vernon (Vern) Hogg were head over heels in love. When Vern was posted as a Principal of a small school four hundred and twenty kilometres away in the small town of Walwa on the Murray River, it seemed the end of the earth. Letters became the life force that connected them both. Waited on eagerly every week, if no letter turned up in the post then the disappointment was palpable. The urgency of being together was heartfelt. Love was blind to whatever was happening in the world. At this tumultuous time there is little in these letters of politics, of the Depression and of the tumultuous events in Europe though Grace and Vern were to become passionate environmentalists and stalwarts of the anti-war movement in the 1960s and 1970s. The only thing that mattered at this time in their lives was love. The letters were kept faithfully in a “Remember” box. Grace died nine months before Vern, and the letters were by his bedside. They were together for over fifty years. To have known love like this is a great blessing. The letters are a reminder of something beyond words and even life itself. Non Omnis Moriar (Not all of me will die) was the monogram on some of Vern’s letters to Grace and it has proved to be true in so many ways. Should these private letters be made public? There are many notes from Grace and Vern and their daughter Barbara that are very instructive, as if they knew that at some point something might happen, though the letters may have been their last consideratno. Vernon notes the shyness of Grace in one letter and both did not like the limelight. No doubt to have these letters published while they were both alive may have been too much. But the joy of these letters and the unique way they convey simple values from another time is something that Grace and Vern would have approved of. It is in keeping with the way they lived. I can imagine Grace’s cheeky smile at the thought of current generations putting aside their phones and dating apps to read her beautifully written letters. She was a feminist and an environmentalist and a supporter of Aboriginal rights and yet she was also an adoring partner. Love was everything that made all things right. Each letter glows with devotion, adoration and simplicity. Love was for life. The modern world was held at bay by dreams of a simple life and pleasures: being together, a house and a family in a cocoon of love. It was not a mirage. Grace and Vernon lived, worked together and were inseparable all their lives. They were seminal and inspirational for four generations of their family and beyond. Outwardly they appeared conventional, but they were always something special, unique, wonderful and modern about them. Heterosexuality and the nuclear family with all its traps sure, but wrapped up by the power of an abiding love. Vernon was ten years older than Grace. He probably first met her with her sisters at the Matrons Ball, Mansfield on Sept 15, 1925. Vernon’s program, (see opposite) faithfully kept in the box with the love letters, shows his dance partners penciled in. He danced with four of the six Warne sisters, “Grace” is written next to the third dance, the Fox Trot. She would have only been ten years old. In one of her photo albums Grace suggests that she met Vern while a nurse. Perhaps Vern made the connection to the Mansfield Dance after their 1930s romance. In the summer of 1933 Grace was a Nurse at Madeleine Private Hospital, Parkville. Nursing was never something Grace enjoyed. More than anything else she wanted to be with Vern. Vern was a young teacher at the mercy of the Victorian Department of Education being posted from country school to country school, enduring white-ant infested residences, he was intent on securing a good house that he and Grace could live in and be together. The beauty of these letters comes from their under-stated sensuality and longing at at a time when seeing a show on Friday night, tennis (Saturday) and cricket (Sunday) were all the entertainment on offer and probably all that most could want. ‘Going to the city’ was something Grace and Vernon loved to do all their lives. In their latter years it was something of a rite, Vernon would walk up the laneways from Flinders St Station for chocolates and freshly baked cookies from the basement at Myers, stop in at Fletcher Jones perhaps and Grace would go wider afield up the tram lines to North Carlton and Brunswick doing a prowl of op. shops for her son, daughters, grandson and their friends, always coming up with amazing bargains and sought after fashion items never out of date. Friday night movies in country theatres were mandatory and often Vernon would take his daughter Barbara who had a life long love of cinema and the moving image. Grace’s letters are wonderful, partly because of their rhythm. In 1933/34 Grace would write weekly and then post the letter the next day. Her closest post office was the Carlton North Post Office at 546 Rathdowne St and she almost always (except when letters were entrusted to her brothers!) made the mail the day after her night-time writing. Vern’s letters are more enigmatic but equally passionate. The great love that is expressed in these letters was a primary reason why the generations that followed Grace and Vernon had successful, happy, adventurous and joyful lives. Those of us who are are alive and breathing in Australia in 2024 are invariably spoilt. We have so many things, privileges and capacities. Grace and Vernon lived simply, loved devotedly and unilaterally and they carried successive generations forward. These letters are a glimpse into anothe time and place. A great love was flourishing that would bind us in our families and in our world. We owe so much to the angels of the past. This volume is an attempt to say thank you and to acknowledge the miracle that was Barbara Botsman. Love is the foundation of all that is good. Non Omnis Moriar
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    When design meets power: design thinking, public sector innovation and the politics of policy-making
    Lewis, JM ; McGann, M ; Blomkamp, E ; van Buren, A ; Lewis, JM ; Peters, BG (Policy Press, 2023-05-24)
    Responding to the need for innovation, governments have begun experimenting with ‘design thinking’ approaches to reframe policy issues and generate and test new policy solutions. This paper examines what is new about design thinking and compares this to rational and participatory approaches to policymaking, highlighting the difference between their logics, foundations and the basis on which they ‘speak truth to power’. It then examines the impact of design thinking on policymaking in practice, using the example of public sector innovation (PSI) labs. The paper concludes that design thinking, when it comes in contact with power and politics, faces significant challenges, but that there are opportunities for design thinking and policymaking to work better together.
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    Implications of the UN Common Agenda for Australia: Renewing Multilateralism
    Feller Ao, E ; Langmore Am, J (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-01-02)
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    It is “Part of this Larger Tapestry of Anti-queer Experiences”: LGBTQ+ Australians’ Experiences of Street Harassment
    Fileborn, B ; Hindes, S (Springer, 2023-12-01)
    Most research on street harassment has focused on the experiences of heterosexual, cisgender women, shaping our understandings of street harassment as a problem of sexism and men’s violence against women. In this article, we examine semi-structured interviews with 25 LGBTQ+ Australians who detailed their experiences of street harassment. We found that LGBTQ+ people experience unique forms, contexts, and trajectories of street harassment that a cisheteronormative gendered framework cannot fully account for. Homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism are drivers that have been under-theorized in street harassment literature. Our findings reiterate the importance of moving beyond over-simplified understandings of gender-based violence and the need to analyze other intersecting forms of marginalization beyond binary conceptualizations of gender.
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    Interventions to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Justice-Involved Young Women: A Scoping Review
    Willoughby, M ; Janca, E ; Kwon, S ; Johnston, B ; Collins, T ; Kinner, SA ; Johns, D ; Gallant, D ; Glover-Wright, C ; Borschmann, R (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2024-04)
    Young women who have had contact with the criminal justice system (justice-involved young women) have an increased risk of being a victim of violence. However, no reviews have synthesized the evidence on interventions to prevent or respond to violence against justice-involved young women. We conducted a scoping review to identify interventions designed to prevent or respond to violence against justice-involved young women. We searched Medline, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed and gray literature published in English from January 1, 2000 until March 23, 2021. Consistent with the public health approach to violence, we included primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Excluding duplicates, our search returned 5,603 records, 14 of which met our inclusion criteria. We narratively synthesized the included studies, all of which were conducted in the United States. Most included studies examined a tertiary intervention (n = 10), and few examined a primary (n = 2) or secondary (n = 2) intervention. Across the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools, the percentage of items met ranged from 0% to 78%. There was some limited evidence that tertiary interventions that included cognitive behavioral therapy reduced the mental health impacts of violence victimization among justice-involved young women. There was little evidence on primary and secondary interventions. Effective and evidence-based interventions to prevent violence victimization and revictimization against justice-involved young women remains a critical gap in knowledge.
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    Non-standard employment and underemployment at labor market entry and their impact on later wage trajectories
    Fauser, S ; Mooi-Reci, I (SAGE Publications, 2024-01-01)
    Using data from the Australian Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (2001–2020), we examine how combined patterns of non-standard employment and underemployment in the early career shape later wage trajectories, paying careful attention to gender differences on a representative sample of Australian young men ( N = 470) and women ( N = 497). By combining multichannel sequence analysis and random effects panel models, we make three central findings. First, we identify seven distinct early employment trajectories, with the “standard” career, characterized by stable, full-time permanent jobs in the first 5 years post-education, being the most prevalent. Second, we find that combined patterns of non-standard employment and underemployment during early careers are associated with significant wage penalties. However, these wage penalties diminish within 10 years. Third, enduring and widening wage disparities are found only among youth primarily unemployed or inactive early in their careers. These penalties are particularly pronounced among men, underscoring the influence of the “ideal” worker norm. Overall, integrating underemployed jobseekers into the workforce and addressing gender-based biases should be a priority for policymakers to ensure equal opportunities and fair treatment for all workers in the labor market.
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    Is Australia a Model for the UK? A Critical Assessment of Parallels of Cruelty in Refugee Externalization Policies
    Matera, M ; Tubakovic, T ; Murray, P (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2023-06-13)
    Abstract For several years, Australia has been regarded by some politicians and observers in Europe as a model for hard-line policies towards refugees. At the same time, Australia’s implementation of refugee externalization measures has been subject to considerable scholarly attention and critique. Although the Australian approach has featured prominently in political debates in several European states, this article analyses the implications of a possible adoption of the Australian offshore detention approach for refugee policy-making in the UK, and the consequences this will have for the integrity of the international refugee protection regime. The article considers how states might influence each other’s policies—both directly and indirectly—by focusing on a case study of offshore detention and processing with regard to Australia’s influence on—and similarity to—the UK, to the extent that we observe policy parallels, as the article brings to light substantial policy convergence of detrimental practice of these two countries.
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    COVID-19, global public health justice, and the culture of organized irresponsibility
    Catello, R (Pluto Journals, )
    This article deploys the language of risk to offer a sociological perspective on the discourse of responsibility in the context of the governance and mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic. While current debates about global public health justice often tend to overemphasize the role of legal action as a key measure in today’s global public health justice initiatives, the article argues that lack of adequate legal mechanisms – such as a global statute on public health crimes – constitutes only one barrier to the attainment of global public health justice. By and large, the failed administration of public health during global pandemics will not induce criminal prosecution on a worldwide scale and this is not because of lack of adequate legal channels but mostly because of the way in which world risk society reshapes the meaning of responsibility. The article argues that the COVID-19 pandemic is a manufactured risk that is being dealt with within a culture of organized irresponsibility that obfuscates accountability and liability for risk-creation and risk-management and transforms culpability for such risk-creation and risk-management into acquittal. Effective approaches to global public health justice, then, cannot be limited to the introduction of international legal safeguards but need to include a project for the social redistribution of bads and reallocation of global responsibility for risk-creation and risk-management.