School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    Effects of Progesterone on Mammary Carcinogenesis by DMBA Applied Directly to Rat Mammae
    JABARA, AG ; MARKS, GN ; SUMMERS, JE ; ANDERSON, PS (Springer Nature, 1979-01-01)
    The effects and site(s) of action of progesterone on DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in the rat, when a small dose of the carcinogen was applied directly to the inguinal mammary gland, were investigated. No reduction in tumour yield was apparent when progesterone was administered s.c. for 18 days before dusting DMBA. This finding contrasts with a previously reported inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis when hormone treatment was followed by intragastric administration of DMBA. When progesterone injections were begun either 2 days before or 2 days after direct application of DMBA, and were continued until the end of the experiment (135 or 195 days) an enhancement in carcinogenesis was observed similar to that previously demonstrated after gastric intubation of DMBA. These findings, together with previously reported observations, suggest that progesterone may exert its inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis by acting at a site outside the breast, perhaps on the liver. However, it is likely that the hormone acts directly on the mammary tissue to exert its enhancing effect on tumorigenesis.
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    Awareness and practice of patient's rights law in Lithuania.
    Ducinskiene, D ; Vladickiene, J ; Kalediene, R ; Haapala, I (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-09-02)
    BACKGROUND: Patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice, but it can also serve to improve understanding between patients and medical staff if both were aware of their rights. METHODS: Awareness and practice of the new patient's rights law in Lithuanian health care institutions was explored through a survey of 255 medical staff and 451 patients in the four Kaunas city medical units in 2002. Participation rates were 74% and 66%, respectively. RESULTS: Majority of the medical staff (85%) and little over one half of the patients (56%) had heard or read about the Law on Patient's Rights (p < 0.001). Only 50% of professionals compared to 69% of patients thought information for patients about diagnosis, treatment results and alternative treatments is necessary (p < 0.001). A clear discrepancy was indicated between physicians informing the patients (80%-98% of physicians) and patients actually knowing (37%-54%) their treatment prognosis, disease complications or possible alternative treatment methods. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a need for awareness-raising among patients to improve the practical implementation of the Patient's Rights Law in Lithuania.
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    The Role of Community in Restorative Justice Conferencing
    Johns, D (RMIT Publishing, 2009-02-01)
    In examining the role of the community in restorative justice conferencing, this article seeks to highlight the critical aspect of conferencing which differentiates it as a mode of restorative justice: the involvement of supportive others of both victims and offenders; the engagement of a restorative community. Reflection on the nature of this community, and its role in the conferencing process, reveals both its functional and symbolic significance. Drawing on the findings of a study of conferencing for young offenders in Melbourne, Australia, between 2000 and 2003, a detailed picture of the role of the restorative community is presented, largely from the perspective of those most closely involved: young offenders and their families.
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    Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale.
    Kowal, E ; Gunthorpe, W ; Bailie, RS (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2007-11-14)
    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB). Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability.We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES), in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.
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    Decentralisation and conflict management in Indonesia and Nigeria
    Diprose, R ; Ukiwo, U (Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, University of Oxford, 2008)
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    Applying Mixed Methods Research to Participatory Development Projects and Local Conflict Mediation: A Case Study from Indonesia
    Barron, P ; DIPROSE, R ; Smith, CQ ; Whiteside, K ; Woolcock, MJV ; Teddlie, C ; Tashakkori, A (Sage Publications, 2009)
    An enduring lesson of social theory is that periods of institutional and political change are often associated with conflict. It is less well understood, however, whether and how development projects help, hinder or are incidental to these processes of change. This paper summarizes the methodological strategies underpinning a study designed to assess the ways in which a large participatory development project in rural Indonesia influenced trajectories of local conflict. Drawing upon a range of coherently integrated qualitative and quantitative research methods, it shows how, where and in what order these methods were combined to yield an innovative array of empirical data on which to base assessments regarding the nature and extent of the project’s impact on prevailing local conflicts. We conclude by offering some lessons from our study, and suggestions for others contemplating large-scale mixed methods research on complex issues.
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    Decentralization, Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict Management in Indonesia
    Diprose, R (Informa UK Limited, 2009-03)
    The impact of decentralization on conflict dynamics is as important as its impact on service delivery and growth, as violent conflict can undo development gains. This paper argues that the impact of decentralization has been twofold. It has relieved centre-periphery tensions around longstanding grievances towards nationalist agendas in Indonesia. The evidence suggests, through examining the case of conflict affected Central Sulawesi, that decentralization has also to some extent addressed long-standing inter-group tensions and horizontal inequalities at the local level, particularly where geographically concentrated ethno-religious groups have previously been marginalised from government. It has also reduced grievances by increasing local autonomy and participation in decision making through direct elections of district heads, now a hotly contested arena of local politics. However, significant structural and institutional change can result in new tensions, particularly when poorly planned for or monitored. Decentralization has stimulated changes in population demographics in some areas in Indonesia resulting in ethno-religious segregation through splitting of sub-national administrative units into increasing numbers of regions. Groups with previous minority status have found safe-haven as majorities, setting the scene for how future rights of access and representation play out. Tensions run high when high-stakes local elections are contested along sensitive identity lines, or when district governments are not inclusive of minorities in their regions. This is not to say that the demographic, structural, and institutional changes with decentralization will necessarily lead to violent conflict, but rather due attention should be given to ensuring appropriate conflict management mechanisms are in place.
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    Physical Safety and Security: A proposal for internationally comparable indicators of violence
    Diprose, R ( 2007)
    Violence impedes human freedom to live safely and securely and can sustain poverty traps in many communities. One of the challenges for academics, policy makers, and practitioners working broadly in programmes aimed at poverty alleviation, including violence prevention, is the lack of reliable and comparable data on the incidence and nature of violence. This paper proposes a household survey module for a multidimensional poverty questionnaire which can be used to complement the available data on the incidence of violence against property and the person, as well as perceptions of security and safety. Violence and poverty are inextricably linked, although the direction of causality is contested if not circular. The module uses standardised definitions which are clear and can be translated cross-culturally and a clear disaggregation of different types of interpersonal violence (not including self-harm) which bridges the crime–conflict nexus.
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    Bare-chested politics in central Sulawesi: The dynamics of local elections in a post-conflict region
    Brown, G ; Diprose, R ; Erb, M ; Sulistiyanto, P (ISEAS Publishing, 2009)
    The 2005 pilkada (pilihan kepala daerah, or local head election) for the positions of bupati (regent) and wakil bupati (deputy regent) in the troubled Indonesian district of Poso were of vital importance for the future stability of the region and the reconciliation processes under way. Given the instrumental role of political and electoral mobilization as one of the features underpinning violence in the post-Soeharto period, there were many fears that the elections could see a return to violence. From a social scientific perspective, the elections were also important as they allow us a snapshot of the status and dynamics of the broad peace that has endured since 2001 despite many incidences of provocation. Using a two-level conceptualization of peace at the elite and the grassroots level, this paper examines how far the pilkada elections are indicative of a move towards a more «positive" peace at the elite and grass-roots level. Examining various formal and informal interventions in the campaigning for the election, we argue that at the elite level, a strong negative peace is in place to prevent a return to conflict, but with little positive engagement co address some of the underlying problems or construct a mutual vision for the future for all groups involved. At the grass-roots level, we argue that voting patterns suggest a similar lack of positive peace at this level and an even weaker form of negative peace.