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ItemIntroductionBEILHARZ, PETER ; CONSIDINE, MARK ; Watts, Rob (Allen and Unwin, 1992)If the topics of popular argument and political conjecture are any indication, the citizens of most modern societies have been long puzzled by the origin, purpose and effectiveness of their social institutions. Not the least of their concerns has been the difficulties which have confronted almost every attempt to redress problems of poverty and inequality. A wide array of programs, professions and social institutions has been developed to deal with these conditions, yet major problems persist. Even more puzzling has been the fact that in some areas the problems actually appear to have multiplied and the measures devised to treat them have more than once been indicted as prime causes of a host of new maladies.One important lesson from the past twenty years of effort by activists and administrators has been the recognition that the means used to organise a welfare service is just as important, if not more so, than the service itself. Paternalistic information systems, invasive assessment procedures and rigid entitlement rules are but a few of the ingrained habits of bureaucracy which have caused many to turn their fire on the state itself. In our discussion of these issues we identify administrative complexity as a major, persistent obstacle to service improvement. We do not attempt to dismiss these problems of social administration with a few abusive remarks about the indolence of the public service. Instead we examine some of the attempts that have been made to rethink basic questions to do with staffing, resource allocation and management.
ItemEnterprising the stateCONSIDINE, MARK (Cambridge University Press, 2001)Perhaps there once was a time when the terms ‘state’, ‘market’ and ‘bureaucracy’ had settled meanings and when the institutions which they helped define had standard, widely understood purposes. If so this is certainly a book about the closing of that era and about a radical set of changes that now seeks to alter the nature of governance in many advanced capitalist states. The particular reform strategies we will identify in four countries seeking will help us map the contours of wider changes in the nature of contemporary governance. The front-line reinventions in these four countries spell-out the central characteristics of a process of change which can be defined as the enterprising of the state. This transformation is something less than a final accomplishment. Process is often more revealing than structure. The enterprising activity takes root in forms of managerialism, contractualism and reinvention within programs aimed at both the work of officials and the identity of citizen-clients. As such it constitutes a new transition model for systems of public action which are seeking ways to meet the challenges of globalisation and the imperatives of new levels of cultural diversity (Jessop, 1991; Lash and Urry,1987).