School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    Effects of Progesterone on Mammary Carcinogenesis by DMBA Applied Directly to Rat Mammae
    JABARA, AG ; MARKS, GN ; SUMMERS, JE ; ANDERSON, PS (Springer Nature, 1979-01-01)
    The effects and site(s) of action of progesterone on DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in the rat, when a small dose of the carcinogen was applied directly to the inguinal mammary gland, were investigated. No reduction in tumour yield was apparent when progesterone was administered s.c. for 18 days before dusting DMBA. This finding contrasts with a previously reported inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis when hormone treatment was followed by intragastric administration of DMBA. When progesterone injections were begun either 2 days before or 2 days after direct application of DMBA, and were continued until the end of the experiment (135 or 195 days) an enhancement in carcinogenesis was observed similar to that previously demonstrated after gastric intubation of DMBA. These findings, together with previously reported observations, suggest that progesterone may exert its inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis by acting at a site outside the breast, perhaps on the liver. However, it is likely that the hormone acts directly on the mammary tissue to exert its enhancing effect on tumorigenesis.
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    Awareness and practice of patient's rights law in Lithuania.
    Ducinskiene, D ; Vladickiene, J ; Kalediene, R ; Haapala, I (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-09-02)
    BACKGROUND: Patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice, but it can also serve to improve understanding between patients and medical staff if both were aware of their rights. METHODS: Awareness and practice of the new patient's rights law in Lithuanian health care institutions was explored through a survey of 255 medical staff and 451 patients in the four Kaunas city medical units in 2002. Participation rates were 74% and 66%, respectively. RESULTS: Majority of the medical staff (85%) and little over one half of the patients (56%) had heard or read about the Law on Patient's Rights (p < 0.001). Only 50% of professionals compared to 69% of patients thought information for patients about diagnosis, treatment results and alternative treatments is necessary (p < 0.001). A clear discrepancy was indicated between physicians informing the patients (80%-98% of physicians) and patients actually knowing (37%-54%) their treatment prognosis, disease complications or possible alternative treatment methods. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a need for awareness-raising among patients to improve the practical implementation of the Patient's Rights Law in Lithuania.
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    The Role of Community in Restorative Justice Conferencing
    Johns, D (RMIT Publishing, 2009-02-01)
    In examining the role of the community in restorative justice conferencing, this article seeks to highlight the critical aspect of conferencing which differentiates it as a mode of restorative justice: the involvement of supportive others of both victims and offenders; the engagement of a restorative community. Reflection on the nature of this community, and its role in the conferencing process, reveals both its functional and symbolic significance. Drawing on the findings of a study of conferencing for young offenders in Melbourne, Australia, between 2000 and 2003, a detailed picture of the role of the restorative community is presented, largely from the perspective of those most closely involved: young offenders and their families.
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    Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale.
    Kowal, E ; Gunthorpe, W ; Bailie, RS (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2007-11-14)
    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB). Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability.We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES), in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.
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    Decentralization, Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict Management in Indonesia
    Diprose, R (Informa UK Limited, 2009-03)
    The impact of decentralization on conflict dynamics is as important as its impact on service delivery and growth, as violent conflict can undo development gains. This paper argues that the impact of decentralization has been twofold. It has relieved centre-periphery tensions around longstanding grievances towards nationalist agendas in Indonesia. The evidence suggests, through examining the case of conflict affected Central Sulawesi, that decentralization has also to some extent addressed long-standing inter-group tensions and horizontal inequalities at the local level, particularly where geographically concentrated ethno-religious groups have previously been marginalised from government. It has also reduced grievances by increasing local autonomy and participation in decision making through direct elections of district heads, now a hotly contested arena of local politics. However, significant structural and institutional change can result in new tensions, particularly when poorly planned for or monitored. Decentralization has stimulated changes in population demographics in some areas in Indonesia resulting in ethno-religious segregation through splitting of sub-national administrative units into increasing numbers of regions. Groups with previous minority status have found safe-haven as majorities, setting the scene for how future rights of access and representation play out. Tensions run high when high-stakes local elections are contested along sensitive identity lines, or when district governments are not inclusive of minorities in their regions. This is not to say that the demographic, structural, and institutional changes with decentralization will necessarily lead to violent conflict, but rather due attention should be given to ensuring appropriate conflict management mechanisms are in place.
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    The art trade
    Casey, B ; Taylor, P ; Eckstein, J ; Moody, D ; Muir, A ; Shaw, C (Informa UK Limited, 1995-01)
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    Utilising older workers
    TAYLOR, P ; Walker, A (Department of Employment, 1995)
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    Managing an Ageing Workforce in Britain and France
    Guillemard, A-M ; Taylor, P ; Walker, A (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1996-10)
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    Age discrimination and public policy
    Taylor, P ; Walker, A (MCB UNIV PRESS LTD, 1997-01-01)
    Reviews government and employer policies towards older workers and shows that there has been a massive decline in economic activity among older workers over the last two decades. The major cause is identified as economic recession which has encouraged employers, with the support of government, to target older workers for redundancy. In addition, older workers have been over‐represented in declining industries. Once out in the labour market older workers face considerable age discrimination. Recently, population ageing has encouraged all political parties to revise their policies on age and employment. Each now recognizes the value of older workers, although there is fundamental disagreement about the best means of encouraging employers to change their practices. The then Conservative government favoured a voluntary approach while the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats have been more favourably disposed towards comprehensive legislation outlawing age discrimination. Argues that a combination of both approaches is desirable and, moreover, that it will also be necessary to revise policies on training, pensions and social security.
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    Combatting Age Barriers in Job Recruitment and Training
    Taylor, P ; Walker, A (Informa UK Limited, 1995-03-01)