School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    Diversion Ahead? Change Is Needed but That Doesn’t Mean That Basic Income Is the Answer
    Bowman, D ; Mallett, S ; Cooney-O'Donoghue, D ; Klein, E ; Mays, J ; Dunlop, T (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2019)
    Using an expanded version of De Wispelaere and Stirton’s 2004 framework for assessing basic income policies, we examine selected past and recent trials. The trials have all produced inconclusive results, in part because of the political contexts in which they have been implemented. As a result, they do little to progress policy reforms to address the challenges of economic insecurities and inequalities. Basic income proposals can act as beacons for change, but because they often lack detail, they risk distracting attention from the challenges and opportunities for social security reform. Our expanded framework enables detailed assessment of the dimensions of proposals for change. It also enables the identification of the elements of basic income proposals that can be incorporated into progressive efforts to reclaim social security.
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    The Impact of the Pandemic on Gender Inequality in the Australian Labor Market
    Mooi-Reci, I ; Trinh, TA ; Wooden, M (SAGE Publications, 2022-04-01)
    We examine whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated policy responses have aggravated gender inequality in the Australian labor market. Using quarterly data from the Australian Labour Force Survey between November 2019 and November 2021, we compare labor force outcomes before and during the outbreak. Our findings indicate that while women fared worse than men in the first few months of the pandemic, labor market recovery was much more rapid for women. By the end of the period, on most indicators, women’s position in the labor market had improved relative to that of men.
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    ‘Why did he do it? Because he’s a fucking bloke’: victim insights into the perpetration of street harassment
    Hindes, S ; Fileborn, B (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-04-25)
    Abstract Despite the pervasive nature of street harassment, there is currently little research exploring who perpetrates street harassment and why. Drawing on interviews with Australians who have experienced street harassment, we examine their insights into perpetration. Participants identified individual-level, social/cultural, structural and contextual factors that facilitate street harassment. While existing theoretical explanations of gendered violence help to account for the perpetration of street harassment, these were not sufficient in accounting for participants’ experiences. Participants often drew on gendered, aged, classed and racial stereotypes in their perceptions of perpetrators. We argue that a nuanced understanding of power that accounts for multiple, intersecting forms of marginalisation is needed to understand who perpetrates, as well as who is perceived to perpetrate street harassment.
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    Logistics Contracts and the Political Economy of State Failure: Evidence from Somalia
    Elder, C (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-07-09)
    ABSTRACT Scholars have long sought to understand how economic rents may inhibit the formation of effective and accountable government. Prevailing interpretations of empirical state failure do not adequately account for economic connections and rents. Based on in-depth ethnographic fieldwork and original source material from the Somalia context, this study shows how the dominance of the logistics economy, as a system of ‘graft’ endogenous to state-building, has contributed to empirical state failure. Empirical state failure is characterized by intra-elite struggle, endemic political violence, and insecurity including the threat posed by Islamic extremism. Contributing to the study of political settlements, political clientelism, and business–state relationships in Africa, findings from this study offer new insights for understanding how the dominance of logistics rents and lead firms within a political system may prevent the establishment of legitimate, centralized authorities. These findings contribute to the broader study of Africa’s political economies which have experienced protracted civil war and post-conflict reconstruction. In conclusion, it argues how economic development, procurement reform agendas, and efforts to withhold or withdraw aid through economic sanctions fail to resolve endemic conflict and governance issues due to vested interests, elite fragmentation, and polycentric aid practices. Instead, both government policy and foreign interventions continue to empower lead logistics firms (as skilful political entrepreneurs) that destabilize the Federal Government of Somalia.
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    AN ARGUMENT FOR UNIVERSAL PRESCHOOL AND CHILDCARE IN THE U.S.
    Yavorsky, JE ; Ruppanner, L (Wiley, 2022-06-01)
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    NGOs as Agents of Global Justice: Cosmopolitan Activism for Political Realists
    Macdonald, T ; Macdonald, K (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2022-01-01)
    Abstract Several decades of scholarship on international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have established their important role in leading cosmopolitan political projects framed around moral ideals of global justice. But contemporary legitimacy crises in international liberalism call for a reexamination of NGOs’ global justice activism, considering how they should navigate the real-world moral contestations and shifting power dynamics that can impede their pursuit of justice. Recent work by deliberative-democratic theorists has argued that NGOs can help resolve disputes about global justice norms by facilitating legitimate communicative exchanges among the diverse political voices of subjected global communities on the correct interpretation and implementation of global justice norms. In response, this essay argues for an expanded account of the political roles of NGOs in global justice activism, which reflects greater sensitivity to the multifaceted political dynamics through which power in real-world global politics is constituted and contested. It is shown that in some NGOs’ real-world operational contexts, structural power imbalances and social division or volatility can undercut the operation of the ideal deliberative processes prescribed by democratic theory—calling for further attention to work focused on mitigating power imbalances, building solidarity, and organizing power in parallel or as a precursor to deliberative-democratic processes.
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    Rituals, Reassurance, and Compliance: Government Communication in Australia during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Young, S ; Maarek, PJ (Springer International Publishing, 2022)
    Australia was ranked as one of the top 10 countries in responding to Covid-19 (Lowy Institute, 2021; Time, 2021). Before vaccines were widely available, the main tools applied were border closures, hotel quarantine, lockdowns, contact tracing and financial subsidies. Despite often harsh impositions on daily life, public opinion surveys revealed that trust in government soared, sometimes to levels rarely seen in polling. Key methods of government communication – including state premiers’ press conferences and health department tweets - provided moments of ritual and reassurance that helped secure consent for strict public health measures. The state premiers’ ability to control the news agenda in an era of streaming television, online news and working from home, was unprecedented and overturned many of the usual conventions of Australian politics.
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    The morality of security: A theory of just securitisation
    Floyd, R ; Loader, I ; Wolfendale, J ; De Londras, F ; Roe, P ; Floyd, R (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-05-15)
    The purpose of this introduction is to concisely present The Morality of Security: A Theory of Just Securitization so that those unfamiliar with this work are better able to engage with the symposium. The book develops a Theory of Just Securitisation outlining when securitisation is morally permissible. Securitisation, here, refers to more than a securitising speech act coupled with a legitimising audience's tacit or actual acceptance of the threat and defence framing. Arguably the question of the morality of securitisation is most pertinent when the same encompasses the use of measures and conduct that most reasonable persons would ordinarily (that is, in times when there is no relevant threat) consider unacceptable, largely because of the harm and/or the violence risked or entailed.