School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    THE AFTERLIVES OF MEMORIAL MATERIALS: DATA, HOAX, BOT
    Nansen, B ; Hjorth, L ; Pitsillides, S ; Gould, H (University of Illinois Libraries, 2019)
    The study of death online has often intersected with questions of trust, though such questions have evolved over time to not only include relations of trust between individuals and within online communities, but also issues of trust emerging through entanglements and interactions with the afterlives of memorial materials. Papers in this panel attend to the growing significance of the afterlives of digital data, the circulation of fake deaths, the care attached to memorial bots, and the intersection of robots and funerals. Over the last twenty years the study of death online developed into a diverse field of enquiry. Early literature addressed the emergence of webpages created as online memorials and focused on their function to commemorate individuals by extending memorial artefacts from physical to digital spaces for the bereaved to gather (De Vries and Rutherford, 2004; Roberts, 2004; Roberts and Vidal, 2000; Veale, 2004). The emergence of platforms for social networking in the mid-2000s broadened the scope of research to include increasingly knotted questions around the ethics, politics and economics of death online. Scholars began investigating issues like the performance of public mourning, our obligations to and management of the digital remains of the deceased, the affordances of platforms for sharing or trolling the dead, the extraction of value from the data of the deceased, and the ontology of entities that digitally persist (e.g. Brubaker and Callison-Burch, 2016; Gibbs et al., 2015; Karppi, 2013; Marwick and Ellison, 2012; Phillips, 2011; Stokes, 2012). Scaffolding this scholarship are a number of research networks, including the Death Online Research Network and the DeathTech Research Network, who encourage international collaboration and conversation around the study of death and digital media, including supporting this AoIR panel. This panel contributes to the growing field of research on death and digital media, and in particular poses challenges to focus on the commemoration of humans to encompass broader issues around the data and materiality of digital death. Digital residues of the deceased persist within and circulate through online spaces, enrolling users into new configurations of posthumous dependence on platforms, whilst at the same time digital afterlives now intersect with new technologies to create emergent forms of agency such as chatbots and robots that extend beyond the human, demanding to be considered within the sphere of digital memorialisation. Questions of trust emerge in this panel through various kinds of relationality formed with and through digital remains. These extend from relations of trust in the digital legacies now archived within platform architectures and how we might curate conversations differently around our personal data; to the breaking of trust in the internet when creating or sharing a hoax death; to the trust involved in making and caring for a posthumous bot; to the trust granted to robots to perform funerary rites. It is anticipated that this panel will not only appeal to scholars interested in the area of death and digital media, but also engage with broader scholarly communities in which questions of death now arise in larger debates around data, materiality, and governance on and of the internet. References Brubaker, J. R. and Callison-Burch, V. (2016) Legacy Contact: Designing and Implementing Post-mortem Stewardship at Facebook. Paper presented at CHI Workshop on Human Factors in Computer Systems, San Jose California. de Vries, B. and Rutherford, J. (2004) Memorializing Loved Ones on the World Wide Web. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 49(1), 5-26. Gibbs, M., Meese, J., Arnold, M., Nansen, B., and Carter, M. (2015) #Funeral and Instagram: Death, Social Media and Platform Vernacular. Information Communication and Society, 18(3): 255-268. Karppi, T. (2013) Death proof: on the biopolitics and noopolitics of memorializing dead Facebook users. Culture Machine, 14, 1-20. Marwick, A. and Ellison, N. (2012) “There Isn’t Wifi in Heaven!” Negotiating Visibility on Facebook Memorial Pages. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56(3), 378–400. Phillips, W. (2011) LOLing at Tragedy: Facebook Trolls, Memorial Pages and Resistance to Grief Online. First Monday 16(12). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org Roberts, P. (2004) The Living and the Dead: Community in the Virtual Cemetery. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 49(1), 57-76. Stokes, P. (2012) Ghosts in the Machine: Do the Dead Live on in Facebook? Philosophy and Technology, 25(3), 363-379. Veale, K. (2004) Online Memorialisation: The Web as a Collective Memorial Landscape For Remembering The Dead. The Fibreculture Journal, 3. Retrieved from http://three.fibreculturejournal.org  
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    Teaching Policy Design: Themes, Topics & Techniques
    Bali, AS ; Bakir, C ; Howlett, M ; Lewis, JM ; Schmidt, S (Editora Blucher, 2021-12-01)
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    Development of the Suicide Ideation Attributes Scale-Modified (SIDAS-M) for autistic adults
    Hedley, D ; Batterham, P ; Gallagher, E ; Denney, K ; Hayward, S ; Uljarević, M ; Bury, S ; Clapperton, A ; Robinson, J ; Trollor, J ; Stokes, M (INSAR, 2021)
    There are currently few instruments specifically designed or adapted to assess suicide risk in the autistic population. The Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS) is a 5-item assessment of suicidal ideation that is commonly used and well-validated in suicide research. Unlike other instruments that primarily assess past suicidal behavior (e.g., Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised; SBQ-R), SIDAS focuses on recent (4-week) ideation making it useful for identifying current risk. SIDAS demonstrates a single factor, good internal consistency, and convergent validity. In addition to strong psychometric properties, its clear questions and straightforward design make it a strong candidate for suicide risk assessment in the autistic population. Therefore, we followed current gold-standard recommendations for measurement development and modification, as well as coproduction with autistic people, to derive and validate a modified version of the instrument (SIDAS-M) specifically adapted for use with autistic adults with a diverse range of abilities.
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    Post-Symposium Reflections: A Panel Discussion
    Polaschek, D ; Daffern, M ; Day, A ; Tamatea, A ; Tamatea, A (University of Waikato, 2021-06)
    A panel discussion to share and discuss reflections.
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    The Economic Cost of Child and Adolescent Bullying in Australia
    Jadambaa, A ; Brain, D ; Pacella, R ; Thomas, HJ ; McCarthy, M ; Scott, JG ; Graves, N (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-02-22)
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis and estimate the economic costs attributable to child and adolescent bullying victimization in Australia. METHOD: The costs of bullying victimization were measured from a societal perspective that accounted for costs associated with health care, education resources, and productivity losses. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate the annual costs for Australians who experienced bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence. This study updated a previous systematic review summarizing the association between bullying victimization and health and nonhealth outcomes. Costs were estimated by calculating population attributable fractions to determine the effects of bullying victimization on increased risk of adverse health outcomes, such as anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, intentional self-harm, and tobacco use. A top-down approach to cost estimation was taken for all outcomes of interest except for costs incurred by educational institutions and productivity losses of victims' caregivers, for which a bottom-up cost estimation was applied. RESULTS: Annual costs in Australian dollars (AUD) in 2016 on health and nonhealth outcomes attributable to child and adolescent bullying victimization were estimated at AUD $763 million: AUD $750 million for health system costs with AUD $147 million for anxiety disorders, AUD $322 million for depressive disorders, AUD $57 million for intentional self-harm, and AUD $224 million for tobacco use; AUD $7.5 million for productivity losses of victims' caregivers; and AUD $6 million for educational services. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest a substantial annual cost to Australian society as a result of bullying victimization with more than 8% of annual mental health expenditure in Australia estimated to be attributable to bullying victimization.
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    Framing Unpacked: A Semi-Supervised Interpretable Multi-View Model of Media Frames
    Khanehzar, S ; Cohn, T ; Mikolajczak, G ; Turpin, A ; Frermann, L (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021-01-01)
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    The IAEA’s Role in Nuclear Security Since 2016
    Findlay, T (Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2019-02-01)
    The paper considers the performance of the International Atomic Energy Agency following the last Nuclear Security Summit in 2016
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    Regional Tools to Strengthen Nuclear Security: Asia-Pacific
    Findlay, T (Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2019-11-30)
    The paper considers the practice of nuclear security in the Asia-Pacific region and how it might be strengthened.
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    The Analytic Possibilities of 'Culture' in a Post-Prison Context
    Johns, D (Elsevier BV, 2014)
    This paper is focused on the use and usefulness of ‘culture’ as an analytical tool, in the context of prisoners’ return to the community. Whereas the analytic dimensions of the culture concept have been explored in anthropological circles, its criminological applications have been limited. While the growth of ‘cultural criminology’ signifies a resurgent interest in ethnography, subjectivity, lived experience and the phenomenological, for instance, it can be argued that its concept of culture lacks explanatory or analytical power. This paper considers the analytic possibilities of ‘culture’ as a tool for uncovering aspects of the post-imprisonment experience. It draws on interviews with released prisoners and post-release support workers, conducted for PhD research on the post-release experience of men in Victoria, to illustrate how culture applied in this way can illuminate processes underpinning and constituting the cycle of reimprisonment, or what Halsey (2006) has termed the ‘reincarceration assemblage’. Seeing culture as both a ‘product and producer’ (Sampson & Bean, 2006) of this assemblage reveals elements which contribute to the continuation of the cycle, and which can counteract efforts – on the part of ex-prisoners themselves and society more broadly – towards reintegration and reduced reoffending. A cultural perspective can thus provide a way of understanding men’s experience of getting out and staying out of prison, and how penological thinking may make use of such a lens.