School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications

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    From online trolls to ‘Slut Shaming’: understanding the role of incivility and gender abuse in local government
    Carson, A ; Mikolajczak, G ; Ruppanner, L ; Foley, E (Informa UK Limited, 2024-01-01)
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    Response to a scandal: sex work, race, and the development sector in Haiti
    Pardy, M ; Alexeyeff, K (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-01-01)
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    Baby Bump or Baby Slump? COVID-19, Lockdowns, and their Effects on Births in Australia
    Mooi-Reci, I ; Wooden, M ; Zilio, F (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2024-03)
    This study examines changes in birth rates in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent to which such changes were influenced by lockdowns. We use natality data at State and small regional area levels spanning the period from 2011 to 2022. In our empirical approach, we first take advantage of a unique quasi-experimental setting that arose in Victoria, Australia's second most populous State, during the first year of the pandemic. Victoria imposed a 111-day stay-at-home lockdown while other States and Territories enforced milder restrictions on social and economic activities. We then exploit lockdowns that lasted more than three months in Victoria and New South Wales in the second year of the pandemic. Within these quasi-experimental settings, our empirical approach was to first use monthly data at the State-level and estimate birth rate deviations from secular trends for the months affected by COVID-19 policies. We also estimate separate models to examine variations in births across regional areas with different compositions of Indigenous population, unemployment, low-income, and non-English speaking residents. Our findings reveal a nationwide fertility increase in 2021, but Victoria exhibited slower growth, especially in areas with higher unemployment, lower income, and more non-English speaking residents. In 2022, we find evidence of a gradual return of birth rates to pre-pandemic trends, though this is mainly concentrated in the major cities. While the second-year lockdowns had limited impacts, language-diverse areas still mostly experienced lower rates of growth in birth rates.
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    Where is the mutilation? Understanding the High Court's deliberation on FGM in Vaziri and Magennis
    Rogers, J (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2024-03)
    In 2015, Vaziri and Magennis – the first case on female genital mutilation (FGM) – was prosecuted in Australia. Three people were convicted. In 2018, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal ruled that the judgment was a ‘potential miscarriage of justice’. The prosecution pushed for ‘leave to appeal’ to the High Court of Australia and for consideration of the meaning of mutilation. The appeal was held in 2019, and the NSWCCA judgment was overturned. In this article, I examine the absence of discussions of male circumcision and female genital cosmetic surgery in this case and ask not only what form of cut produces a legal definition of mutilation, but where this cut must be and on what form of body.
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    Mapping the parent experience of echolalia in autism spectrum disorder onto a conceptual taxonomy
    Cohn, EG ; McVilly, KR ; Harrison, MJ (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-09-20)
    PURPOSE: Echolalia, the repetition of previously heard speech, is prevalent in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Within the context of echolalia in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research and intervention historically assume a clinical standpoint with two opposing paradigms: behaviourism and developmentalism. The literature is largely silent on how those other than researchers and clinicians understand echolalia. This study examined how parents experience echolalia through their children with ASD. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the parental perception of echolalia in ASD aligns with, or offers alternative perspectives to, current clinically-orientated views. METHOD: We employed online semi-structured interviews to document the experiences of 126 parents, reflecting on their children with ASD aged 3 to 34 years of age, to determine if the parent experience could be mapped onto existing clinical frameworks, or if they might offer new perspectives. We used hermeneutic phenomenological data analysis in an abductive framework. RESULT: Echolalia has predominantly been represented in literature through the perspectives of behaviourism or developmentalism. We found however, that echolalia is a phenomenon that is experienced by parents in a variety of different ways to that of the current clinically-orientated understandings. Such new ways of understanding echolalia that emerged from our analysis include one understanding which is dependent upon how echolalia is heard, and one in which parents are "waiting for echolalia to evolve." CONCLUSION: The traditional dichotomous clinical positions do not resonate with all parents, and reliance on these traditional perspectives alone may impact effective engagement with parents and the success of interventions and support strategies. Our findings have implications for future research, the education of clinicians and educators, and the design of support and intervention for those who have echolalia.
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    Echolalia as defined by parent communication partners
    Cohn, EG ; McVilly, KR ; Harrison, MJ (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2023)
    BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Echolalia, the repetition of previous speech, is highly prevalent in Autism. Research into echolalia has historically assumed a clinical standpoint, with two opposing paradigms, behaviourism and developmentalism, offering differing support and intervention programs. These paradigms offer a multitude of clinical operationalised definitions; despite attempts, there continue to be challenges regarding how echolalia is to be defined. Stepping out of the dichotomous clinically orientated literature, we examined how parents summarise and formalise their understanding of echolalia as a communication partner. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate how echolalia is described and defined by parents; (2) to examine if existing clinical definitions align with those of parents; and (3) to begin to consider the implications of such findings for a collaborative approach between clinical perspectives and the parent experience. We bring to the fore the voices of parents, who have historically remained absent from echolalia literature. That is to say, we step outside of the clinical realm and listen to parents: something which has been previously unconsidered but represents a new vital addition to the echolalia literature. METHODS: We employed a Grounded Theory approach to document the definitions of 133 parents. RESULTS: We found that parents reported a multiplicity of important elements that are key to their understanding of echolalia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Additionally, we found that clinical definitions do not resonate within the parent experience; parents experience echolalia in a different way to that of clinicians and parents can offer insight into our understanding of the phenomena. Our findings show that while some parents might align themselves with either a behavioural or developmental positionality, sometimes there is an overlap depending upon the context in which their child repeats and some parents advance interpretations that are not readily aligned with either of the traditional clinical schools of thought. We present implications for both clinicians and parents in ways that point towards a collaborative approach to support the person with echolalia.
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    Transdisciplinarity and epistemic communities: Knowledge decolonisation through university extension programmes
    Rodriguez, D (Wiley, 2022-02)
    In Latin America, a legacy of colonisation is the pervasiveness of a Eurocentric approach to knowledge. This geopolitics of knowledge entails the prioritisation of “rational” scientific knowledge over the mosaic epistemology that characterises a population born from high mestizaje (cultural and ethnic heterogeneity). Alternatively, universities could advance global cognitive justice by means of knowledge decolonisation. This article explores one way to advance that project. Based on contributions from Luso‐Hispanic scholars, I propose university extension programmes be reformulated to include epistemic communities as ecologies of knowledges. Theoretical insights are contrasted with an Ecuadorian experience, where a centre originally created to disseminate georeferenced socioeconomic and ecological indicators has evolved into a knowledge community with potential to promote plural dialogue of knowledges and influence decision making.
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    For a progressive realism: Australian foreign policy in the 21st century
    Bisley, N ; Eckersley, R ; Hameiri, S ; Kirk, J ; Lawson, G ; Zala, B (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-03-04)
    What ideas and concepts might be used to reinvigorate a progressive approach to Australian foreign policy? In contrast to the clarity of the international vision provided by right-wing movements, there is uncertainty about the contours of a progressive approach to contemporary Australian foreign policy. This article outlines the basis of a ‘progressive realism’ that can challenge right-wing accounts. Progressive realism combines a ‘realistic’ diagnosis of the key dynamics that underpin contemporary world politics with a ‘progressive’ focus on the redistribution of existing power configurations. Taken together, these two building blocks provide the foundations for a left-of-centre foreign policy agenda. We apply progressive realism to four policy areas: pandemic politics, aid and infrastructure in the Pacific, climate change, and a crisis in the Taiwan Strait. This analysis, in turn, highlights the challenges and opportunities for progressive political actors in crafting foreign policy both within and beyond Australia.