School of Chemistry - Research Publications

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    Origin of the different reactivity of the high-valent coinage-metal complexes [(RCuMe3)-Me-iii](-) and [(RAgMe3)-Me-iii](-) (R=allyl)**
    Auth, T ; Stein, CJ ; O'Hair, RAJ ; Koszinowski, K (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2022-01-07)
    High-valent tetraalkylcuprates(iii) and -argentates(iii) are key intermediates of copper- and silver-mediated C-C coupling reactions. Here, we investigate the previously reported contrasting reactivity of [RMiii Me3 ]- complexes (M=Cu, Ag and R=allyl) with energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation experiments, advanced quantum-chemical calculations and kinetic computations. The gas-phase fragmentation experiments confirmed the preferred formation of the [RCuMe]- anion upon collisional activation of the cuprate(iii) species, consistent with a homo-coupling reaction, whereas the silver analogue primarily yielded [AgMe2 ]- , consistent with a cross-coupling reaction. For both complexes, density functional theory calculations identified one mechanism for homo coupling and four different ones for cross coupling. Of these pathways, an unprecedented concerted outer-sphere cross coupling is of particular interest, because it can explain the formation of [AgMe2 ]- from the argentate(iii) species. Remarkably, the different C-C coupling propensities of the two [RMiii Me3 ]- complexes become only apparent when properly accounting for the multi-configurational character of the wave function for the key transition state of [RAgMe3 ]- . Backed by the obtained detailed mechanistic insight for the gas-phase reactions, we propose that the previously observed cross-coupling reaction of the silver complex in solution proceeds via the outer-sphere mechanism.
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    Mechanism of Deoxygenation and Cracking of Fatty Acids by Gas-Phase Cationic Complexes of Ni, Pd, and Pt
    Parker, K ; Pho, V ; O’Hair, RAJ ; Ryzhov, V (MDPI AG, 2021-05-15)
    Deoxygenation and subsequent cracking of fatty acids are key steps in production of biodiesel fuels from renewable plant sources. Despite the fact that multiple catalysts, including those containing group 10 metals (Ni, Pd, and Pt), are employed for these purposes, little is known about the mechanisms by which they operate. In this work, we utilized tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MSn) to show that multiple types of fatty acids (saturated, mono-, and poly-unsaturated) can be catalytically deoxygenated and converted to smaller hydrocarbons using the ternary metal complexes [(phen)M(O2CR)]+], where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and M = Ni, Pd, and Pt. The mechanistic description of deoxygenation/cracking processes builds on our recent works describing simple model systems for deoxygenation and cracking, where the latter comes from the ability of group 10 metal ions to undergo chain-walking with very low activation barriers. This article extends our previous work to a number of fatty acids commonly found in renewable plant sources. We found that in many unsaturated acids cracking can occur prior to deoxygenation and show that mechanisms involving group 10 metals differ from long-known charge-remote fragmentation reactions.
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    Experimental and theoretical investigations into the manifestation of the gamma-effect in 2-and 4-[2-silylethyl)]pyridines and pyridinium ions
    Karnezis, A ; Brydon, SC ; Molino, A ; Wilson, DJD ; O'Hair, RAJ ; White, JM (ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2021-09-04)
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    Gas-Phase Models for the Nickel- and Palladium-Catalyzed Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids
    Parker, K ; Weragoda, GK ; Pho, V ; Canty, AJ ; Polyzos, A ; O'Hair, RAJ ; Ryzhov, V (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020-11-05)
    Using fatty acids as renewable sources of biofuels requires deoxygenation. While a number of promising catalysts have been developed to achieve this, their operating mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, model molecular systems are studied in the gas phase using mass spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations. The coordinated metal complexes [(phen)M(O2CR)]+ (where phen=1,10‐phenanthroline; M=Ni or Pd; R=CnH2n+1, n≥2) are formed via electrospray ionization. Their collision‐induced dissociation (CID) initiates deoxygenation via loss of CO2 and [C,H2,O2]. The CID spectrum of the stearate complexes (R=C17H35) also shows a series of cations [(phen)M(R’)]+ (where R’ < C17) separated by 14 Da (CH2) corresponding to losses of C2H4‐C16H32 (cracking products). Sequential CID of [(phen)M(R’)]+ ultimately leads to [(phen)M(H)]+ and [(phen)M(CH3)]+, both of which react with volatile carboxylic acids, RCO2H, (acetic, propionic, and butyric) to reform the coordinated carboxylate complexes [(phen)M(O2CR)]+. In contrast, cracking products with longer carbon chains, [(phen)M(R)]+ (R>C2), were unreactive towards these carboxylic acids. DFT calculations are consistent with these results and reveal that the approach of the carboxylic acid to the “free” coordination site is blocked by agostic interactions for R > CH3.
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    Using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to explore formation and gas-phase chemistry of silver nanoclusters generated from the reaction of silver salts with NaBH(4)in the presence of bis(diphenylarsino)methane
    Ma, HZ ; McKay, AI ; Canty, AJ ; O'Hair, RAJ (WILEY, 2020-07-28)
    Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of mixtures of AgBF4 or AgNO3 with the capping ligand bis(diphenylarsino)methane ((Ph2 As)2 CH2 = dpam) in a solution of acetonitrile revealed the formation of the following cations: [Ag(CH3 CN)(dpam)]+ , [Ag(dpam)2 ]+ , [Ag2 (Cl)(dpam)2 ]+ , and [Ag3 (Cl)2 (dpam)3 ]+ . Addition of NaBH4 to these solutions results in the formation of the cluster cations [Ag2 (BH4 )(dpam)2 ]+ , [Ag2 (BH4 )(dpam)3 ]+ , [Ag3 (H)(BH4 )(dpam)3 ]+ , [Ag3 (BH4 )2 (dpam)3 ]+ , [Ag3 (H)(Cl)(dpam)3 ]+ , and [Ag3 (I)(BH4 )(dpam)3 ]+ , as established by ESI-MS. Use of NaBD4 confirmed that borohydride is the source of the hydride in these clusters. An Orbitrap Fusion LUMOS mass spectrometer was used to explore the gas-phase unimolecular chemistry of selected clusters via multistage mass spectrometry (MSn ) experiments employing low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) and high-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) experiments. The borohydride containing clusters fragment via two competing pathways: (i) ligand loss and (ii) B-H bond activation involving BH3 loss. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to calculate the energetics of the optimized structures for all precursor ions, fragment ions, and neutrals and to estimate the reaction endothermicities. Generally, there is reasonable agreement between the most abundant product ion formed and the predicted endothermicity of the associated reaction channel. The DFT calculations predicted that the novel dimer [Ag2 (BH4 )(dpam)2 ]+ has a paddlewheel structure in which the dpam and BH4 - ligands bridge both silver centers.
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    Gas-phase studies of copper(I)-mediated CO(2)extrusion followed by insertion of the heterocumulenes CS(2)or phenylisocyanate
    Yang, Y ; Canty, AJ ; O'Hair, RAJ (WILEY, 2020-06-24)
    The gas-phase extrusion-insertion reactions of the copper complex [bathophenanthroline (Bphen)CuI (O2 CC6 H5 )]2- , generated via electrospray ionization, was studied in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer with the combination of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion-molecule reaction (IMR) events. Multistage mass spectrometry (MSn ) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) demonstrated that extrusion of carbon dioxide from [(Bphen)Cu(O2 CC6 H5 )]2- (CID) gives the organometallic intermediate [(Bphen)Cu(C6 H5 )]2- , which subsequently reacts with carbon disulfide (IMR) via insertion to yield [(Bphen)Cu (SC(S)C6 H5 )]2- . The fragmentation of the product ion resulted in the formation of [Bphen]2- , [(Bphen)Cu]- and C6 H5 CS2 - under CID conditions. The formation of the latter two charge separation products thus provides evidence of C-C bond formation in the IMR step. Although analogous studies with isocyanate, which is isoelectronic with CS2 , showed a poor reactivity in the gas phase, the mechanistic understanding obtained from these model studies encourages future development of a solution phase protocol for the synthesis of amides from carboxylic acids and isocyanates mediated by copper(I) complexes.
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    Reaction of Distonic Aryl and Alkyl Radical Cations with Amines: The Role of Charge and Spin Revealed by Mass Spectrometry, Kinetic Studies, and DFT Calculations
    Andrikopoulos, B ; Sidhu, PK ; Taggert, B ; Nathanael, JG ; O'Hair, RAJ ; Wille, U (Wiley, 2020-01-01)
    Gas‐phase reaction of the aromatic distonic radical cations 4‐Pyr+. and 3‐Pyr+. with amines led to formation of the corresponding amino pyridinium ions 4‐Pyr+NR2 and 3‐Pyr+NR2 through amine addition at the site of the radical, followed by homolytic β‐fragmentation. The reaction efficiencies range from 66–100 % for 4‐Pyr+. and 57–86 % for 3‐Pyr+., respectively, indicating practically collision‐controlled processes in some cases. Computational studies revealed that the combination of positive charge and spin makes nucleophilic attack by the amine at the site of the radical barrierless and strongly exothermic by about 175±15 kJ mol−1, thereby rendering ‘conventional’ radical pathways through hydrogen abstraction or addition onto π systems less important. Exemplary studies with 4‐Pyr+. showed that this reaction can be reproduced in solution. A similar addition/radical fragmentation sequence occurs also in the gas‐phase reaction of amines with the aliphatic distonic radical cation Oxo+C., showing that the observed charge‐spin synergism is not limited to aromatic systems.
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    Photoexcited Pd(ii) auxiliaries enable light-induced control in C(sp(3))-H bond functionalisation
    Czyz, ML ; Weragoda, GK ; Horngren, TH ; Connell, TU ; Gomez, D ; O'Hair, RAJ ; Polyzos, A (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020-03-07)
    Herein we report the photophysical and photochemical properties of palladacycle complexes derived from 8-aminoquinoline ligands, commonly used auxiliaries in C-H activation. Spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational studies reveal that visible light irradiation induces a mixed LLCT/MLCT charge transfer providing access to synthetically relevant Pd(iii)/Pd(iv) redox couples. The Pd(ii) complex undergoes photoinduced electron transfer with alkyl halides generating C(sp3)-H halogenation products rather than C-C bond adducts. Online photochemical ESI-MS analysis implicates participation of a mononuclear Pd(iii) species which promotes C-X bond formation via a distinct Pd(iii)/Pd(iv) pathway. To demonstrate the synthetic utility, we developed a general method for inert C(sp3)-H bond bromination, chlorination and iodination with alkyl halides. This new strategy in auxiliary-directed C-H activation provides predictable and controllable access to distinct reactivity pathways proceeding via Pd(iii)/Pd(iv) redox couples induced by visible light irradiation.
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    Type IX Secretion System Cargo Proteins Are Glycosylated at the C Terminus with a Novel Linking Sugar of the Wbp/Vim Pathway
    Veith, PD ; Shoji, M ; O'Hair, RAJ ; Leeming, MG ; Nie, S ; Glew, MD ; Reid, GE ; Nakayama, K ; Reynolds, EC ; Trent, MS (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2020-09-01)
    Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia use the type IX secretion system to secrete cargo proteins to the cell surface where they are anchored via glycolipids. In P. gingivalis, the glycolipid is anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS), of partially known structure. Modified cargo proteins were deglycosylated using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and digested with trypsin or proteinase K. The residual modifications were then extensively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The C terminus of each cargo protein was amide-bonded to a linking sugar whose structure was deduced to be 2-N-seryl, 3-N-acetylglucuronamide in P. gingivalis and 2-N-glycyl, 3-N-acetylmannuronic acid in T. forsythia The structures indicated the involvement of the Wbp pathway to produce 2,3-di-N-acetylglucuronic acid and a WbpS amidotransferase to produce the uronamide form of this sugar in P. gingivalis The wbpS gene was identified as PGN_1234 as its deletion resulted in the inability to produce the uronamide. In addition, the P. gingivalis vimA mutant which lacks A-LPS was successfully complemented by the T. forsythia vimA gene; however, the linking sugar was altered to include glycine rather than serine. After removal of the acetyl group at C-2 by the putative deacetylase, VimE, VimA presumably transfers the amino acid to complete the biosynthesis. The data explain all the enzyme activities required for the biosynthesis of the linking sugar accounting for six A-LPS-specific genes. The linking sugar is therefore the key compound that enables the attachment of cargo proteins in P. gingivalis and T. forsythia We propose to designate this novel linking sugar biosynthetic pathway the Wbp/Vim pathway.IMPORTANCE Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, two pathogens associated with severe gum disease, use the type IX secretion system (T9SS) to secrete and attach toxic arrays of virulence factor proteins to their cell surfaces. The proteins are tethered to the outer membrane via glycolipid anchors that have remained unidentified for more than 2 decades. In this study, the first sugar molecules (linking sugars) in these anchors are identified and found to be novel compounds. The novel biosynthetic pathway of these linking sugars is also elucidated. A diverse range of bacteria that do not have the T9SS were found to have the genes for this pathway, suggesting that they may synthesize similar linking sugars for utilization in different systems. Since the cell surface attachment of virulence factors is essential for virulence, these findings reveal new targets for the development of novel therapies.