School of Chemistry - Research Publications
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ItemFunctionalised dairy streams: Tailoring protein functionality using sonication and heatingLeong, TSH ; Walter, V ; Gamlath, CJ ; Yang, M ; Martin, GJO ; Ashokkumar, M (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-11-01)Ultrasound can be used to modify the functional interactions between casein and whey proteins in dairy systems. This study reports on ongoing developments in understanding the effect of ultrasound and heating on milk proteins in systems with modified casein-whey protein ratios (97:3, 80:20 and 50:50), prepared from milk protein concentrates that were fractionated by microfiltration, based on protein size. Heating of concentrated casein streams (9% w/w) at 80.0 °C for up to 9 min resulted in reduced gelation functionality and increased viscosity, even in the absence of added whey proteins. 20 kHz ultrasonication at 20.8 W calorimetric power for 1 min was able to break protein aggregates formed during heating, resulting in improved gelation and reduced viscosity. Interestingly, when heated whey protein was recombined with unheated casein the gelation properties were similar to unheated controls. In contrast, when heat treated casein streams were recombined with unheated whey protein, the gel forming functionality was reduced. This study therefore shows that using specific combinations of heat and/or ultrasound, fractionated dairy streams can be tailored for specific functional outcomes.
ItemA study of the effectiveness and energy efficiency of ultrasonic emulsificationLi, W ; Leong, TSH ; Ashokkumar, M ; Martin, GJO (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2018-01-07)Three essential experimental parameters in the ultrasonic emulsification process, namely sonication time, acoustic amplitude and processing volume, were individually investigated, theoretically and experimentally, and correlated to the emulsion droplet sizes produced. The results showed that with a decrease in droplet size, two kinetic regions can be separately correlated prior to reaching a steady state droplet size: a fast size reduction region and a steady state transition region. In the fast size reduction region, the power input and sonication time could be correlated to the volume-mean diameter by a power-law relationship, with separate power-law indices of −1.4 and −1.1, respectively. A proportional relationship was found between droplet size and processing volume. The effectiveness and energy efficiency of droplet size reduction was compared between ultrasound and high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) based on both the effective power delivered to the emulsion and the total electric power consumed. Sonication could produce emulsions across a broad range of sizes, while high-pressure homogenisation was able to produce emulsions at the smaller end of the range. For ultrasonication, the energy efficiency was higher at increased power inputs due to more effective droplet breakage at high ultrasound intensities. For HPH the consumed energy efficiency was improved by operating at higher pressures for fewer passes. At the laboratory scale, the ultrasound system required less electrical power than HPH to produce an emulsion of comparable droplet size. The energy efficiency of HPH is greatly improved at large scale, which may also be true for larger scale ultrasonic reactors.
ItemUltrasonic encapsulation - A reviewLeong, TSH ; Martin, GJO ; Ashokkumar, M (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017-03-01)Encapsulation of materials in particles dispersed in water has many applications in nutritional foods, imaging, energy production and therapeutic/diagnostic medicine. Ultrasonic technology has been proven effective at creating encapsulating particles and droplets with specific physical and functional properties. Examples include highly stable emulsions, functional polymeric particles with environmental sensitivity, and microspheres for encapsulating drugs for targeted delivery. This article provides an overview of the primary mechanisms arising from ultrasonics responsible for the formation of these materials, highlighting examples that show promise particularly in the development of foods and bioproducts.
ItemThe formation of double emulsions in skim milk using minimal food-grade emulsifiers - A comparison between ultrasonic and high pressure homogenisation efficienciesLeong, TSH ; Zhou, M ; Zhou, D ; Ashokkumar, M ; Martin, GJO (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018-02-01)Double emulsions of W1/O/W2-type were formed in skim milk. Skim milk (W1) was emulsified within sunflower oil (O) using ultrasonication that was in turn emulsified within an external skim milk phase (W2) using ultrasonication or high pressure homogenisation (HPH). The internalised aqueous phase was stabilised within the oil phase using food-grade surfactants: polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and/or lecithin. Encapsulation yields of the W1/O emulsion into the double emulsion were between 30 and 100%, with increased yields achieved with reduced sonication time or HPH pressure, or increased PGPR or lecithin concentration. Ultrasonication was found to form relatively better monodisperse emulsions that showed greater stability to coalescence than those produced by HPH. Ultrasonication and HPH were found to be translatable in the sense that at a similar specific energy density (∼20 J/g) emulsions with similar size distributions in the range 1-10 μm and encapsulation yields (ca 37 wt%) could be achieved.
ItemFormation of Cheddar cheese analogues using canola oil and ultrasonication – a comparison between single and double emulsion systemsLeong, TSH ; Ong, L ; Gamlath, CJ ; Gras, SL ; Ashokkumar, M ; Martin, GJO (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)Cheddar cheese analogues were produced from skim milk in which canola oil was emulsified using ultrasound to form either single (O/W) or double emulsions (W1/O/W2). The double emulsion cheese analogues (DECH) had a distinct microstructure and retained small skim milk droplets, dispersed in the fat phase, for more than 7 months of aging at 4 °C. The single emulsion cheese analogues (SECH), prepared with the same fat content as control cheeses, produced comparable yields of cheese and whey, with similar composition, although the fat droplets were more spherical and showed greater coalescence. The DECH cheese with skim milk encapsulated in the oil droplets was harder, melted less and showed more free fatty acid development over 7 months of aging than the control cheeses. The SECH cheeses were softer than the control and also melted less effectively but did not show greater free fatty acid development.
ItemThe inhibitory roles of native whey protein on the rennet gelation of bovine milkGamlath, CJ ; Leong, TSH ; Ashokkumar, M ; Martin, GJO (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018-04-01)Rennet gelation is used to produce many types of cheese. The effect of native whey protein on rennet gelation kinetics was investigated. Milks with a wide range of whey protein:casein (WP:CN) ratios (with standardised casein concentrations) were made from powders produced by microfiltration. Measurements of casein macro peptide release showed that native whey protein inhibited the enzymatic action of chymosin, which delayed the onset and reduced the subsequent rate of gelation. Experiments in which increased chymosin concentrations compensated for the inhibition, demonstrated that other factors also contributed to the reduced gelation rate. Neither an increase in viscosity nor a reduction in soluble calcium was responsible, leading to the conclusion that in addition to inhibiting chymosin, native whey proteins present a physical barrier to para-casein aggregation. This study demonstrates and explains how casein-enriched retentates from microfiltration gel faster than regular cheese milk that contains higher amounts of native whey protein.
ItemMinimising oil droplet size using ultrasonic emulsificationLeong, TSH ; Wooster, TJ ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M (ELSEVIER, 2009-08-01)The efficient production of nanoemulsions, with oil droplet sizes of less than 100nm would facilitate the inclusion of oil soluble bio-active agents into a range of water based foods. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to create remarkably small transparent O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters as low as 40nm from sunflower oil. This is achieved using ultrasound or high shear homogenization and a surfactant/co-surfactant/oil system that is well optimised. The minimum droplet size of 40nm, was only obtained when both droplet deformability (surfactant design) and the applied shear (equipment geometry) were optimal. The time required to achieve the minimum droplet size was also clearly affected by the equipment configuration. Results at atmospheric pressure fitted an expected exponential relationship with the total energy density. However, we found that this relationship changes when an overpressure of up to 400kPa is applied to the sonication vessel, leading to more efficient emulsion production. Oil stability is unaffected by the sonication process.
ItemTHE FUNDAMENTALS OF POWER ULTRASOUND - A REVIEWLeong, T ; Ashokkumar, M ; Kentish, S (SPRINGER SINGAPORE PTE LTD, 2011-08-01)
ItemExperimental and Theoretical Studies on the Movements of Two Bubbles in an Acoustic Standing Wave FieldJiao, J ; He, Y ; Leong, T ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M ; Manasseh, R ; Lee, J (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2013-10-17)When subjected to an ultrasonic standing-wave field, cavitation bubbles smaller than the resonance size migrate to the pressure antinodes. As bubbles approach the antinode, they also move toward each other and either form a cluster or coalesce. In this study, the translational trajectory of two bubbles moving toward each other in an ultrasonic standing wave at 22.4 kHz was observed using an imaging system with a high-speed video camera. This allowed the speed of the approaching bubbles to be measured for much closer distances than those reported in the prior literature. The trajectory of two approaching bubbles was modeled using coupled equations of radial and translational motions, showing similar trends with the experimental results. We also indirectly measured the secondary Bjerknes force by monitoring the acceleration when bubbles are close to each other under different acoustic pressure amplitudes. Bubbles begin to accelerate toward each other as the distance between them gets shorter, and this acceleration increases with increasing acoustic pressure. The current study provides experimental data that validates the theory on the movement of bubbles and forces acting between them in an acoustic field that will be useful in understanding bubble coalescence in an acoustic field.