School of Chemistry - Research Publications

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    A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Sonication, High Shear Mixing and Homogenisation on Improving the Heat Stability of Whey Protein Solutions
    Koh, LLA ; Chandrapala, J ; Zisu, B ; Martin, GJO ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M (SPRINGER, 2014-02-01)
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    THE FUNDAMENTALS OF POWER ULTRASOUND - A REVIEW
    Leong, T ; Ashokkumar, M ; Kentish, S (SPRINGER SINGAPORE PTE LTD, 2011-08-01)
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    Spray Assembled, Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Membranes for Salt Removal
    Cho, KL ; Lomas, H ; Hill, AJ ; Caruso, F ; Kentish, SE (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2014-07-29)
    The present study reports the synthesis of spray-coated cross-linked polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes. Membrane cross-linking was performed using alkyne-azide "click" chemistry, where alkyne and azide functional groups were used to modify the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) polyelectrolytes. The results demonstrate that deposition at lower ionic strength produced smoother and denser membrane structures. Pore size analysis using neutral poly(ethylene glycol) revealed a decrease in the membrane pore size as the degree of cross-linking was increased, resulting in the membrane rejecting divalent CaCl2 at levels of up to 80%, and 50% rejection of monovalent NaCl. When poly(sodium-4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was combined with small amounts of cross-linkable PAA, significant flux increases were observed in the multilayer membranes with no observable reduction in ion rejection.
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    Surface Engineering of Polypropylene Membranes with Carbonic Anhydrase-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Improved Carbon Dioxide Hydration
    Yong, JKJ ; Cui, J ; Cho, KL ; Stevens, GW ; Caruso, F ; Kentish, SE (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2015-06-09)
    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a native enzyme that facilitates the hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions. This study reports the fabrication of thin films of active CA enzyme onto a porous membrane substrate using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Deposition of multilayer films consisting of polyelectrolytes and CA was monitored by quartz crystal microgravimetry, while the enzymatic activity was assayed according to the rates of p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NPA) hydrolysis and CO2 hydration. The fabrication of the films onto a nonporous glass substrate showed CO2 hydration rates of 0.52 ± 0.09 μmol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of bovine CA and 2.6 ± 0.7 μmol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of a thermostable microbial CA. The fabrication of a multilayer film containing the microbial CA on a porous polypropylene membrane increased the hydration rate to 5.3 ± 0.8 μmol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of microbial CA. The addition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a film layer prior to enzyme adsorption was found to increase the activity on the polypropylene membranes even further to a rate of 19 ± 4 μmol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of microbial CA. The LbL treatment of these membranes increased the mass transfer resistance of the membrane but decreased the likelihood of membrane pore wetting. These results have potential application in the absorption of carbon dioxide from combustion flue gases into aqueous solvents using gas-liquid membrane contactors.
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    Membranes: chlorine resistant glutaraldehyde crosslinked polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for desalination (adv. Mater. 17/2015).
    Cho, KL ; Hill, AJ ; Caruso, F ; Kentish, SE (Wiley, 2015-05)
    Novel membranes are fabricated for use in desalination and water purification applications by F. Caruso, S. E. Kentish, and co-workers, described on page 2791. The crosslinked polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes are synthesized on a porous polysulfone support within aqueous media and are crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. This leads to NaCl rejections of up to 97%. The incorporation of a highly sulfonated polysulfone polyanion results in outstanding chlorine resistance.
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    Chlorine Resistant Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Membranes for Desalination
    Cho, KL ; Hill, AJ ; Caruso, F ; Kentish, SE (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2015-05-06)
    Crosslinked polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes are synthesized with salt rejection values approaching those of commercial desalination membranes, but with increased chlorine resistance. The membranes are fabricated directly onto porous commercial substrates. Subsequent crosslinking of the polycation layers with glutaraldehyde leads to NaCl rejections of up to 97%, while the incorporation of a highly sulfonated polysulfone polyanion leads to high chlorine resistance.
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    Click poly(ethylene glycol) multilayers on RO membranes: Fouling reduction and membrane characterization
    Wang, C ; Such, GK ; Widjaya, A ; Lomas, H ; Stevens, G ; Caruso, F ; Kentish, SE (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2012-08-01)
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    Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Movements of Two Bubbles in an Acoustic Standing Wave Field
    Jiao, J ; He, Y ; Leong, T ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M ; Manasseh, R ; Lee, J (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2013-10-17)
    When subjected to an ultrasonic standing-wave field, cavitation bubbles smaller than the resonance size migrate to the pressure antinodes. As bubbles approach the antinode, they also move toward each other and either form a cluster or coalesce. In this study, the translational trajectory of two bubbles moving toward each other in an ultrasonic standing wave at 22.4 kHz was observed using an imaging system with a high-speed video camera. This allowed the speed of the approaching bubbles to be measured for much closer distances than those reported in the prior literature. The trajectory of two approaching bubbles was modeled using coupled equations of radial and translational motions, showing similar trends with the experimental results. We also indirectly measured the secondary Bjerknes force by monitoring the acceleration when bubbles are close to each other under different acoustic pressure amplitudes. Bubbles begin to accelerate toward each other as the distance between them gets shorter, and this acceleration increases with increasing acoustic pressure. The current study provides experimental data that validates the theory on the movement of bubbles and forces acting between them in an acoustic field that will be useful in understanding bubble coalescence in an acoustic field.
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    Influence of acoustic pressure and bubble sizes on the coalescence of two contacting bubbles in an acoustic field
    Jiao, J ; He, Y ; Yasui, K ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M ; Manasseh, R ; Lee, JY (Elsevier, 2015)
    In this study, the coalescence time between two contacting sub-resonance size bubbles was measured experimentally under an acoustic pressure ranging from 10kPa to 120kPa, driven at a frequency of 22.4kHz. The coalescence time obtained under sonication was much longer compared to that calculated by the film drainage theory for a free bubble surface without surfactants. It was found that under the influence of an acoustic field, the coalescence time could be probabilistic in nature, exhibiting upper and lower limits of coalescence times which are prolonged when both the maximum surface approach velocity and secondary Bjerknes force increases. The size of the two contacting bubbles is also important. For a given acoustic pressure, bubbles having a larger average size and size difference were observed to exhibit longer coalescence times. This could be caused by the phase difference between the volume oscillations of the two bubbles, which in turn affects the minimum film thickness reached between the bubbles and the film drainage time. These results will have important implications for developing film drainage theory to account for the effect of bubble translational and volumetric oscillations, bubble surface fluctuations and microstreaming.
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    Experimental and theoretical analysis of secondary Bjerknes forces between two bubbles in a standing wave
    Jiao, J ; He, Y ; Kentish, SE ; Ashokkumar, M ; Manasseh, R ; Lee, J (ELSEVIER, 2015-04-01)
    Bubbles in an acoustic field are affected by forces such as primary and secondary Bjerknes forces, which have been shown to be influenced by acoustic pressure, frequency, bubble size and separation distance between bubbles. However, such studies are predominantly theoretical, and are mostly focused on the sign reversal of the secondary Bjerknes force. This study provides experimental data on the effect of a range of bubble sizes (8-30 μm), distances (⩽0.2 mm), acoustic pressures (20-40 kPa) and frequencies (40-100 kHz) on the relative acceleration of two approaching bubbles. Under these conditions, only variations in the magnitude of the attractive force were observed. Using coupled equations of radial and translational motions, the acceleration and secondary Bjerknes force were calculated and compared to the experimental data. The variations in the magnitude of the secondary Bjerknes forces were explained by simulating bubble radius and coupled volume oscillation as a function of time.