School of Chemistry - Research Publications

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    Measured power conversion efficiencies of bifacial luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic devices of the mosaic series
    Aghaei, M ; Pelosi, R ; Wong, WWH ; Schmidt, T ; Debije, MG ; Reinders, AHME (WILEY, 2022-02-28)
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    Simulations of Luminescent Solar Concentrator Bifacial Photovoltaic Mosaic Devices Containing Four Different Organic Luminophores
    Aghaei, M ; Zhu, X ; Debije, M ; Wong, W ; Schmidt, T ; Reinders, A (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022-02-15)
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    Limitations of conjugated polymers as emitters in triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion
    O'shea, R ; Gao, C ; Bradley, S ; Owyong, TC ; Wu, N ; White, JM ; Ghiggino, KP ; Wong, WWH (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2021-10-11)
    Triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion performances for poly(phenylene-vinylene) emitters were investigated through a series of copolymers with bulky sidechains.
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    Tetraphenylethene 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Derivatives - Synthesis and Photophysical Properties
    Gao, C ; Seow, JY ; Zhang, B ; Hall, CR ; Tilley, AJ ; White, JM ; Smith, TA ; Wong, WWH (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2019-06-01)
    A series of tetraphenylethene 9,10-diphenylanthracene (TPE-DPA) derivatives have been synthesized, and their photophysical properties studied. Photoluminescence measurements in PMMA, neat films and nanoparticle dispersions reveal that different aggregation states are formed, which leads to different photophysical behavior. The triplet excited state properties were studied using Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) as triplet sensitizer. Upconverted emission from the DPA moiety is observed in nanoparticle dispersions of each derivative. A higher upconverted emission intensity is observed in aerated (compared to deaerated) solutions of the derivatives following irradiation, which is attributed to oxidation of the TPE moiety. These results provide valuable insight for the design of AIE luminogens for triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC).
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    Revealing the influence of steric bulk on the triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion performance of conjugated polymers
    O'shea, R ; Kendrick, WJ ; Gao, C ; Owyong, TC ; White, JM ; Ghiggino, KP ; Wong, WWH (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-10-01)
    A series of poly(phenylene-vinylene)-based copolymers are synthesized using the Gilch method incorporating monomers with sterically bulky sidechains. The photochemical upconversion performance of these polymers as emitters are investigated using a palladium tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin triplet sensitizer and MEH-PPV as reference. Increased incorporation of sterically bulky monomers leads to a reduction in the upconversion efficiency despite improved photoluminescence quantum yield. A phosphorescence quenching study indicates issues with the energy transfer process between the triplet sensitizer and the copolymers. The best performance with 0.18% upconversion quantum yield is obtained for the copolymer containing 10% monomer with bulky sidechains.
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    Molecular doped organic semiconductor crystals for optoelectronic device applications
    Qin, Z ; Gao, C ; Wong, WWH ; Riede, MK ; Wang, T ; Dong, H ; Zhen, Y ; Hu, W (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-11-21)
    For semiconductors, doping is an efficient approach to tune their energy bandgaps, charge transport, and optical properties which could enable the improvement of the corresponding performances and open up the possibility of multifunction integration. Recently, significant advances have been achieved in molecular doped organic semiconductors, especially doped organic semiconductor single crystals (OSSCs) which have features of well-defined packing structures, long-range molecular orders, and low-density defects for fundamental studies and improved properties. In this review, we will give a summary of the exciting progress of molecular doped OSSCs from the aspects of selection criteria of molecular dopants, general growth methods, and resulting optoelectronic properties as well as their applications in optoelectronic devices. Finally, a brief conclusion is given with challenges and perspectives of molecular doped OSSCs and their related promising research directions in this field.
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    Optimising molecular rotors to AIE fluorophores for mitochondria uptake and retention
    OwYong, TC ; Ding, S ; Wu, N ; Fellowes, T ; Chen, S ; White, JM ; Wong, WWH ; Hong, Y (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020-12-07)
    Molecular rotors exhibit fluorescence enhancement in a confined environment and thus have been used extensively in biological imaging. However, many molecular rotors suffer from small Stokes shift and self-aggregation caused quenching. In this work, we have synthesised a series of red emissive molecular rotors based on cationic α-cyanostilbene. Profoundly enhanced aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties and greatly widened Stokes shifts can be achieved by molecular engineering. With specificity to stain mitochondria, we demonstrate a simple approach to achieve cell uptake and retention upon tuning the pyridinium substituent of the dyes.
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    Detection of Halomethanes Using Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
    Yin, W ; Li, H ; Chesman, ASR ; Tadgell, B ; Scully, AD ; Wang, M ; Huang, W ; McNeill, CR ; Wong, WWH ; Medhekar, N ; Mulvaney, P ; Jasieniak, JJ (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2021-01-13)
    The extensive use of halomethanes (CH3X, X = F, Cl, Br, I) as refrigerants, propellants, and pesticides has drawn serious concern due to their adverse biological and atmospheric impact. However, there are currently no portable rapid and accurate monitoring systems for their detection. This work introduces an approach for the selective and sensitive detection of halomethanes using photoluminescence spectral shifts in cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Focusing on iodomethane (CH3I) as a model system, it is shown that cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) nanocrystals can undergo rapid (<5 s) halide exchange, but only after exposure to oleylamine to induce nucleophilic substitution of the CH3I and release the iodide species. The extent of the halide exchange is directly dependent on the CH3I concentration, with the photoluminescence emission of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals exhibiting a redshift of more than 150 nm upon the addition of 10 ppmv of CH3I. This represents the widest detection range and the highest sensitivity to the detection of halomethanes using a low-cost and portable approach reported to date. Furthermore, inherent selectivity for halomethanes compared to other organohalide analogues is achieved through the dramatic differences in their alkylation reactivity.
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    Pyridine End-Capped Polymer to Stabilize Organic Nanoparticle Dispersions for Solar Cell Fabrication through Reversible Pyridinium Salt Formation
    Saxena, S ; Marlow, P ; Subbiah, J ; Colsmann, A ; Wong, WWH ; Jones, DJ (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2021-07-23)
    Bulk-heterojunction nanoparticle dispersions in water or alcohol can be employed as eco-friendly inks for the fabrication of organic solar cells by printing or coating. However, one major drawback is the need for stabilizing surfactants, which facilitate nanoparticle formation but later hamper device performance. When surfactant-free dispersions are formulated, a strong limitation is imposed by the dispersion concentration due to the tendency of nanoparticles to aggregate. In this work, pyridine end-capped poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-Py) is synthesized and included as an additive for the stabilization of P3HT:indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) nanoparticle dispersions. In the presence of acetic acid (AcOH), a surface-active pyridinium acetate end-capped P3HT ion pair, P3HT-PyH+AcO-, is formed which effectively stabilizes the dispersion and hence allows the formation of dispersions with smaller nanoparticle sizes and higher concentrations of up to 30 mg/mL in methanol. The dispersions exhibit an enhanced shelf-lifetime of at least 60 days at room temperature. After the deposition of light-harvesting layers from the nanoparticle dispersions, the ion-pair formation is reversed at elevated temperatures leading to regeneration of P3HT-Py and AcOH. The AcOH evaporates from the active layer, while the performance of the corresponding solar cells is not affected by the residual P3HT-Py in the devices. Enhanced nanoparticle stability is achieved with only 0.017 wt % pyridine in the P3HT/ICBA formulation.
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    Modeling radiative and non-radiative pathways at both the Franck-Condon and Herzberg-Teller approximation level.
    Manian, A ; Shaw, RA ; Lyskov, I ; Wong, W ; Russo, SP (AIP Publishing, 2021-08-07)
    Here, we present a concise model that can predict the photoluminescent properties of a given compound from first principles, both within and beyond the Franck-Condon approximation. The formalism required to compute fluorescence, Internal Conversion (IC), and Inter-System Crossing (ISC) is discussed. The IC mechanism, in particular, is a difficult pathway to compute due to difficulties associated with the computation of required bosonic configurations and non-adiabatic coupling elements. Here, we offer a discussion and breakdown on how to model these pathways at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level with respect to its computational implementation, strengths, and current limitations. The model is then used to compute the photoluminescent quantum yield (PLQY) of a number of small but important compounds: anthracene, tetracene, pentacene, diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP), and Perylene Diimide (PDI) within a polarizable continuum model. Rate constants for fluorescence, IC, and ISC compare well for the most part with respect to experiment, despite triplet energies being overestimated to a degree. The resulting PLQYs are promising with respect to the level of theory being DFT. While we obtained a positive result for PDI within the Franck-Condon limit, the other systems require a second order correction. Recomputing quantum yields with Herzberg-Teller terms yields PLQYs of 0.19, 0.08, 0.04, 0.70, and 0.99 for anthracene, tetracene, pentacene, DPP, and PDI, respectively. Based on these results, we are confident that the presented methodology is sound with respect to the level of quantum chemistry and presents an important stepping stone in the search for a tool to predict the properties of larger coupled systems.