Melbourne Law School - Theses

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    Occupation, resistance & the law: Was armed resistance to the occupation of Iraq justified under international Law?
    Clarke, Benjamin Matthew ( 2009)
    The 2003 invasion and occupation of Iraq triggered a plethora of legal questions. This study focuses upon two: Was Iraqi resistance to the invasion and occupation justified under the laws of war? If so, by whom and for how long? ('The research questions') These are questions that the UN Security Council deliberately avoided when it responded to the intervention. Given that most States and commentators regarded the intervention as a violation of the UN Charter, the legality of armed resistance to the invasion and occupation warrants analysis. The present study examines, inter alia, whether Iraq was justified in using force against Coalition forces in the exercise of rights under the jus ad hellum. It considers whether self-defence and self determination provided a juridical foundation for armed resistance to the invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq. Attention is also paid to the jus in hello. Issues addressed include: the nature of the conflict(s) during the occupation; whether members of various resistance forces qualified as combatants; and the issue of compliance with the jus in hello during resistance operations. In order to address these matters with precision, the occupation of Iraq is considered in several stages: 1. The immediate aftermath of the ouster of the Ba'ath regime (April-May 2003); 2. Post-UNSCR 1483; 3. Post-UNSCR 1511; and 4. Post-UNSCR 1546 (and pre-28 June 2004). The fourth stage highlights a matter of fundamental importance to this study the end point of the occupation. The position adopted here is that the occupation was terminated, with UNSC approval, upon the transfer of power to an Iraqi government on 28 June 2004. Thereafter, armed resistance could not have been justified under the right of national self-defence, as this right is exercisable by governments, not insurgent forces. While it may be argued that military occupation continued, as a matter of fact, beyond the transfer of power, this writer's view is that, as a matter of law, the occupation was terminated on 28 June 2004, in accordance with UNSCR 1546. Discussion of 'the legality of resistance to occupation' is thus confined to the period between the collapse of the Ba'ath regime in April 2003 and the transfer of power on 28 June 2004. In addressing the research questions, a range of contemporary legal issues are highlighted. They include: 1. Unresolved tensions within the laws of war over the precise parameters of 'lawful resistance' to foreign occupation; 2. Overlap and convergence of the jus in hello and the }us ad hellum in the context of armed resistance to occupation. (The clearest example is the right of peoples to fight for self determination against alien occupation which falls within both branches of the laws of war); 3. Whether the right of self-defence may be overridden by the UNSC; 4. Whether UNSC resolutions depend for their validity upon their conformity with jus cogens norms; and 5. Whether armed resistance to UN-authorized forces is, by its nature, a breach of the UN Charter and therefore an unlawful use of force.
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    An examination of Teutonic law
    Brissenden, E. Mayhew ( 1893)
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    The responsibility to protect against crimes against humanity and genocide : effective operationalisation of the principle
    Wynn-Pope, Phoebe A ( 2008)
    In 1994, genocide in the tiny landlocked nation of Rwanda, was the catalyst for a debate that would persist throughout the 1990s: Did the international community have a right to intervene in the domestic affairs of a nation state if the intervention was for humanitarian purposes? Conflict between the moral imperative of helping vulnerable populations and the international legal principles of sovereignty and non-interference, as well as the prohibition on the use of force, led to much discussion and no resolution of the issue. In 1999, when NATO forces led a `humanitarian intervention' in Kosovo without UN Security Council authorisation, the debate was brought to a head. The UN Charter made the use of force illegal in international law with just two exceptions: self defence, or when authorized by the UN Security Council. The NATO intervention in Kosovo did not meet either of these requirements, and yet there were many in the international community who felt although the intervention may have been illegal it was `legitimate'. In 2001, following a long study into the conflict between sovereignty on one hand, and the moral imperative to intervene for humanitarian purposes on the other, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty released its landmark report "A Responsibility to Protect" and an important new international principle was. born. No longer was the idea of humanitarian intervention about the rights of States to use force, but about the rights of vulnerable populations to be protected. The Responsibility to Protect principle notes that when a State is either unwilling or unable to protect its own population from the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and war crimes, then the international community has a responsibility to do so. By 2005, the international community outlined its own understanding of the Responsibility to Protect principle and endorsed it by consensus in the UN World Summit Outcome Document. This thesis explores the emergence of the Responsibility to Protect principle through a study of the genocide in Rwanda, the history of humanitarian intervention, and the resulting debate throughout the 1990s on the nature of sovereignty, non-interference, and the use of force. It then explores the implications of the World Summit commitment by the international community to the Responsibility to Protect principle. But importantly, is it possible that the principle will affect the actions and responses of the international community to atrocity crimes? This thesis proposes the establishment of a Global Protection Unit at the heart of the United Nations to fulfill some of the tasks essential for the effective operationalisation of the Responsibility to Protect principle.
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    Civil penalties under the Corporations Act 2001 (CTH) and the enforcement role of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission
    Welsh, Michelle Anne ( 2008)
    The civil penalty regime was introduced in 1993 to ensure ASIC would have at its disposal criminal penalties for conduct that is genuinely criminal in nature and civil penalties for breaches of the directors' duties where no criminality is involved. The regime was designed to comply with strategic regulation theory. This thesis examines ASIC's use of the civil penalty regime for the purpose of determining whether or not ASIC has utilized it for the reasons for which it was introduced. One of the research questions examined in this thesis is whether or not the civil penalty regime has provided ASIC with an effective enforcement mechanism for non-criminal contraventions of the civil penalty provisions. In order to answer that question this thesis examines the factors which inform ASIC's choice of the civil penalty regime. Various factors inform ASIC's choice, however in situations where ASIC has the choice of the civil penalty or the criminal regime, the overriding factor is ASIC's and the DPP's stated policy to pursue a criminal prosecution in all cases where there is sufficient evidence to support one. A consequence of the implementation of this policy is that very few civil penalty applications have been issued when compared with other enforcement activity instigated by ASIC. The civil penalty regime has been utilised almost exclusively in situations where a criminal prosecution was not available, or the DPP was satisfied there was insufficient evidence to sustain one. This factor, coupled with the fact that ASIC has achieved a high level of success with the civil penalty applications it has issued means that the civil penalty regime has provided ASIC with an effective enforcement mechanism for contraventions of the civil penalty provisions in situations where a criminal prosecution could not have been sustained or was not available. Another research question examined in this thesis is whether the civil penalty regime has been utilised in a manner envisaged by strategic regulation theory. A consequence of the adoption of a policy of issuing criminal prosecutions in all cases where one is available is that the civil penalty regime does not map on to the enforcement pyramid in a manner envisaged by strategic regulation theory.
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    Protective measures applicable to child complainants of sexual offences in the South African criminal justice system
    Nel, Eloise ( 2008)
    Testifying in a courtroom is a stressful experience for any witness. This stress is heightened where the witness is a child complainant of a sexual offence. Not only will this child have to testify about the intimate details of the offence, but he or she will also have to do so in the presence of the alleged perpetrator in the formal environment of the courtroom surrounded by unfamiliar people dressed in black robes. The South African legislature has taken some cognizance of the difficulties that these vulnerable witnesses may face whilst giving evidence in the courtroom and has enacted various provisions which make protective measures available to them. Such protective measures include closing the court to the public during the testimony of the complainant, permitting the complainant to give evidence through closed-circuit television thereby avoiding confrontation with the accused and the formal courtroom environment, as well as permitting the child to give evidence through an intermediary who conveys the questions of counsel to the child in a language and form the child can understand. This study is based on a review of the relevant authority, judicial pronouncements thereon, academic literature on the subject, and to a limited extent empirical research of the practical application of these provisions in the South African courts. The aim of this study is to determine whether these provisions are achieving the purpose behind their enactment and therefore effectively providing protection to child complainants of sexual offences. The conclusion is reached that these provisions, are riddled with deficiencies and are further erratically applied. The provision which makes it mandatory to close the courts to the public during . the testimony of the complainant is completely ignored and prosecutors are still bringing applications for the closure of the courts, leaving presiding judicial officers with a discretion as to whether or not the public should be excluded from the trial during the testimony of the complainant. Furthermore, witnesses are often not aware of the provision which permits them to bring an application to give evidence via closed-circuit television. It has been argued that child complainants of sexual offences will always meet the requirements set out in that provision and that they should therefore be given an automatic right to give their evidence via closed-circuit television. On the other hand, witnesses have no standing to bring an application for the appointment of an intermediary and such an application can only be brought by the prosecution. Once the prosecution has decided whether or not to bring such an application, it is further subject to the discretion of the presiding judicial officer who may refuse to grant the application: This discretion has resulted in the inconsistent application of the section and an arbitrary application of the law which fails to uphold the values enshrined in the South African Constitution. It has been recommended that a more uniform and objective approach to invoking this protective measure is required. This study. recommends in closing that legislative reform is indeed necessary in order to provide more -effective and uniform protection to child complainants of sexual offences within the South African criminal justice system.
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    The old bridge of Mostar and increasing respect for cultural property in armed conflict
    Petrovic, Jadranka ( 2008)
    This thesis concerns international legal protection of immovable cultural property in armed conflict. Drawing on the relevant rules of international humanitarian law (IHL) and jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the thesis analyses the incident of the deliberate targeting and destruction of the Old Bridge of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, first from a normative point of view and then it examines enforcement efforts to identify issues relating to international legal protection of cultural property in armed conflict arising from this incident. The objective of the thesis is to evaluate the adequacy of the IHL, regime relating to the targeting and destruction of cultural property in armed conflict and the adequacy of international enforcement regime based on the study of the Old Bridge of Mostar. Although it is precious to all humanity, including future generations, cultural property is targeted wilfully during armed conflict The deliberate destruction of the Old Bridge is emblematic of tragedies wrought on priceless cultural objects internationally. The Old Bridge was a monument of exceptional historical and architectural. significance. It formed part of the cultural heritage of all humankind. The Old Bridge was a protected object within the meaning of IHL. At the time of its destruction it was devoid of military significance and did not constitute a legitimate military target. Its destruction was in violation of the relevant rules of IHL protecting cultural property in armed conflict. The wilful destruction of cultural property amounts to a war crime and incurs individual criminal responsibility. In the litany of Balkan war crimes the wilful destruction of cultural property has been pushed from centre stage. Cultural property-related crimes have not been as `visible' as they should have been. Although some important steps have been made towards ending impunity for cultural property-related crimes, there are still problems at both the normative and enforcement levels. Despite numerous legal prohibitions on the destruction of cultural property in armed conflict, these norms require further clarity and implementation. Until this happens and blatant attacks on cultural property are paid closer attention it will be difficult to ensure respect for cultural property in armed conflict.
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    Law, medical practice and policy development
    Skene, Loane (1947-) ( 2008)
    This application is based on a range of achievements Which establish, as required by Regulation 3.16 of the university's statutes, that 'I have made `a substantial and original contribution to legal scholarship' (see Part A); and that my work `is of such standard as to give [me] authoritative standing in the field of [my] study [Health and Medical Law]' (see Part B). My achievements include scholarly critique and analysis and cross-disciplinary publications in leading international journals (see Part C).
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    Security and liberty : Australia's counter-terrorism laws and freedom of expression
    Irving, James N ( 2008)
    The legal subject areas covered by this thesis are international human rights law, Australian constitutional law and Australian federal criminal law. The thesis examines four selected provisions of the Commonwealth Criminal Code against the standards set by art 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (`ICCPR') to determine whether they breach Australia's international obligations to protect the right to freedom of expression. The four provisions are selected on the basis that they are identified as counter-terrorism laws that clearly affect the right to freedom of expression as defined in international law, and were controversial when they were enacted. The provisions are analysed carefully to identify their impact on freedom of expression. Article 19 is selected as the standard for the measurement of the effects on freedom of expression by the provisions because the ICCPR is the most prominent human rights covenant that Australia is a party to. The ICCPR has not, however, been fully implemented at federal level in Australia as yet. In particular, art 19 has not been expressly implemented at all. The result is that that Australia's compliance with art 19 is haphazard and dependent upon Australia's domestic laws (the Constitution and statutory mechanisms)confining the restriction of the right to freedom of expression within the boundary permitted by art 19(3), which sets out a limited basis for the governmental restriction of the freedom. Accordingly, the protection's for human rights established by Australian domestic law, particularly the implied constitutional freedom of expression on political and governmental matters, are examined to see whether they restrain the provisions from infringing article 19. The thesis concludes that all of the four provisions do breach article 19, notwithstanding the operation of these domestic legal protections, for identified reasons. The thesis suggests amendments to the provisions to avoid this effect, as well as general law reform measures that would strengthen the protection of all human rights in Australia, including freedom of expression.