Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
ItemBeneath the veneer : negotiating British and colonial Australian relationships in Queensland domestic interiors, 1880-1901Avery, Tracey Ann ( 2012)Australian histories of design have largely characterised furnished interiors as passive imitations of European models, with Australia seen as marginalised by time and distance, and lacking in agency from the centres of international design. These interpretations have over-shadowed a range of cultural meanings attached to furnishings at this time. The examination of the discourse of design, business trade and consumer choice on furniture in this thesis, using the case study of Queensland in the late nineteenth century, exposed the dynamic co-dependent relationship between Britain and the Australian colonies, where issues around the materials and making of furniture figured prominently in the construction of colonial identity. Using a wide range of primary source material, including furnishing guides, trade journals and catalogues, parliamentary debates and inventories, the study showed that colonial Australians used their knowledge of the material and cultural aspects of furnishing acquired from British-based texts to maintain the overall appearance of British genteel middle-class interiors. Colonial Australians faced contested local issues around climate, local materials, race and labour relations, which saw colonial loyalty divided between Britain and their local industries. In response, they adopted new construction and branding techniques to subtlety distinguish locally made items from British ones based on native timbers, their functional performance and the employment of local European labour, rather than their visible aesthetic design. This thesis contributes further context for Australian interiors, and argues that the inclusion of more detailed business histories for objects designed for global consumption, such as domestic furniture, are required understand the subtle transfers of cultural meaning between imperial powers and settler nations which change over time. Ultimately, a combination of locally made and imported items and practices observable in different rooms of the home reflected the composite or hybrid nature of an emerging colonial Australian identity. Issues of materials and labour revealed agency on the part of colonies, which has hitherto been obscured by an over-reliance on surviving images of complete interiors and single nation studies. This is to certify that: - the thesis comprises only my original work towards the PhD except where indicated in the Preface; - due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used; - the thesis is less than 100,000 words in length, exclusive of tables, maps, bibliographies and appendices.
ItemTransformation of Jalan Malioboro, Yogyakarta : the morphology and dynamics of a Javanese streetWibisono, Bambang Hari ( 2001)Streets are an important element of urban form and function. For their future development it is essential to understand the processes of transformation they have undergone in the past. This thesis is specifically concerned with Jalan Malioboro, the principal street of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, which has had many historic roles and has undergone many transformations since its establishment in 1756. The various plans and regulations put forward in the past for the development of this street have proved to be inadequate to manage its invaluable but fragile local character. The aim of this research project is to understand and define the prevailing processes and forces that have brought about the transformation of Jalan Malioboro's streetscape since its establishment up to the present. Two approaches were used: morphological analysis for the physical-spatial characteristics of the streetscape through graphical representations and their qualitative descriptions; and socio-cultural analysis of the functions, meanings and activities taking place on the street, also done descriptively and qualitatively. A retrospective method was applied to reveal the processes that had occurred in the past and a prospective method to analyse the current condition and envisage its prospects. The overall process of transformation shows both continuities and changes of both the morphology and functions and meanings of Jalan Malioboro. The only true continuity is that of the very original axis. Everything else was and is in constant flux depending upon the contemporary forces. Although Jalan Malioboro forms a prominent linear space that provides a vista from Kraton to Tugu as part of a cosmological axis, it has grown spontaneously and incrementally. Socioculturally, the most striking transformation has been from its royal ceremonial function to its current predominant commercial function. The processes of transformation also demonstrate the dialectic between the form and function of the spaces along Jalan Malioboro, which has produced a hybridised and lively street. Its linearity, an orderly form derived from its function as a cosmological axis, has had superimposed on it different forms and activities, thus producing an ambiguous and chaotic streetscape. There are five key forces that have brought about the transformation: (a) the religious syncretism of the Javanese culture; (b) the political subversion, (c) lack of planning control, (d) modernisation, commercialisation and commodification of space; and (e) the 1997 economic downturn. Any development efforts for Jalan Malioboro arising from an examination of its process of transformation should attempt to ensure that its cultural significance, including its complexity and the dynamism of the street environment, is maintained.
ItemSome aspects of industrial accommodationBlock, Gerd E (1926-) ( 1971)Small-scale manufacturing is the stepchild of industrial architecture. There is a dearth of information on the needs of small firms which would assist the designer; and what is written is either out of date or barely relevant to the specific problems of providing adequate accommodation. Other professionals like the economist see the small industrial firm in terms of output and employment, the town-planner as a user of urban land and as a potential 'nuisance' to neighbouring residential areas. Architects are rarely attracted to the task of designing single small factories, nor do the resources of small firms - unlike large industries - allow the engagement of professional design services. The situation changes rapidly when the complexity increases with the numbers of units and when the resources of many firms can be pooled. My professional activity in the area of large-scale industrial and office buildings, and my teaching work, have drawn my attention to the many areas in which the understanding of the complexity of problems related to the design of industrial spaces is inadequate; and furthermore it has become obvious that the human needs of the occupants, or users, of such spaces are not always adequately appreciated. In his work the architect depends increasingly upon the scientific findings of researchers in other disciplines and specialities; cognisance of these will help him to seek appropriate advice, and to add such knowledge to his own experience for the betterment of his buildings and the spaces within. In this thesis an attempt is made to establish a better understanding of smaller industrial firms, their needs for an adequate yet economical work environment, for work space in buildings and for industrial land. A brief review of the place of industry in society, an assessment of the magnitude of the problems of providing accommodation for small industries in urban areas, the growth of industry, and current trends and issues in industrial development, will outline the setting for this topic. This is followed by a review of human and technical aspects of work in industrial buildings; it is demonstrated how a better appreciation is gained by systematic investigation, and controlled observation and testing for which specific examples are given. Much design data which was generated for this purpose from my recent Small Factories Survey is presented, and, where available, compared with information gained from other sources. Attention is focused on industrial land, particularly its effective and economical use, and the planning aspects related to this; the industrial estate being the most conspicuous type of industrial land use is studied in detail as an example. The similarity of problems is demonstrated when considering large sites like industrial estates with many and varied land users as against relatively limited sites with such compact developments as flatted factories. A detailed analysis of four building types as to the suitability of plan elements, plan shapes, size, building structure end other planning features is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of their accommodation characteristics for industrial purposes. Much data, which was generated by my most recent International Survey, is used to illustrate the application of theoretical studies in practice; the feedback from personal inspections of most of the buildings and interviews with tenants and managements at these examples complete the general theme, and consolidate the body of knowledge on the accommodation needs of small industries. The supposition is made that small firms, too, need and can afford a quality work environment, adequate production space, and better facilities in good locations, and that they and the community may benefit from a more compact development and an economical utilisation of urban land.