School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences - Research Publications

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    Willingness to Pay for Conservation of the Asian Elephant in Nakai Nam Theun National Protected Area in Laos
    Chanthasene, S ; Phimmavong, S ; Baral, H ; Wayakone, S ; Wanneng, P (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2022)
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    Wood-based solutions for forests and people: An editorial to this Special Issue
    Kim, YS ; Baral, H ; Rhee, H ; Pagdee, A ; Gautam, A ; Saxena, A (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-01)
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    Carbon footprints, informed consumer decisions and shifts towards responsible agriculture, forestry, and other land uses?
    van Noordwijk, M ; Pham, TT ; Leimona, B ; Duguma, LA ; Baral, H ; Khasanah, N ; Dewi, S ; Minang, PA (OAE Publishing Inc., 2022-01-01)
    The urgent global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions depends on political commitments to common but differentiated responsibility. Carbon footprints as a metric of attributable emissions reflect individually determined contributions within, and aggregated national contributions between, countries. Footprints per unit product (e.g., of food, feed, fuel, or fiber) require a lifecycle analysis and support individual decisions on consumption and lifestyles. This perspective presents a framework for analysis that connects the various operationalizations and their use in informing consumer and policy decisions. Footprints show geographical variation and are changing as part of political-economic and social-ecological systems. Articulation of footprints may trigger further change. Carbon footprints partially correlate with water and biodiversity footprints as related ecological footprint concepts. The multifunctionality of land use, as a solution pathway, can be reflected in aggregated footprint metrics. Credible footprint metrics can contribute to change but only if political commitments and social-cultural values and responsibilities align.
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    INCREASING RICE PRODUCTIVITY IN DEGRADED PEATLANDS USING IMPROVED PLANTING METHODS AND RICE VARIETIES
    Cahya, M ; Suwignyo, RA ; Sodikin, E ; Baral, H (Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, 2022-03-13)
    Sonor farming practical has become a habit for local community of South Sumatra. In fact, this agricultural practice still results in low production. This research was conducted to determine the comparison of planting methods by farmers with improving planting methods with 2 new high yielding varieties. This research was conducted in Perigi Village, Pangkalan Lampam District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province from December 2019 to April 2020. The research method used was a Split Plot Design with two factors, namely factor 1 was rice varieties and factor 2 was planting method, where the main plot was planting method including: T1: Broadcasting 25 kg/ha, T2: Broadcasting 75 kg/ha, T3: Legowo 2: 1 (20x40x10 cm), and T4: transplanting (20x20 cm) and the sub plot rice varieties, V1: Inpari 30 and V2: Inpara 3. There are 8 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The results showed that the improvement of planting methods showed an increasing in yield in terms of total tiller number, productive tiller number, grain number per panicles, grain weight panicles, grain weight per m2, and plant biomass. The Legowo method had higher productivity than otherplanting method with rice productivity 3.7 tonnes per ha. The Inpara 3 showed better growth and production on degraded peatlands.
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    Coupled insights from the palaeoenvironmental, historical and archaeological archives to support social-ecological resilience and the sustainable development goals
    Allen, KJ ; Reide, F ; Gouramanis, C ; Keenan, B ; Stoffel, M ; Hu, A ; Ionita, M (IOP Publishing, 2022-01-01)
    Abstract Many governments and organisations are currently aligning many aspects of their policies and practices to the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs should increase social-ecological resilience to shocks like climate change and its impacts. Here, we consider the relationship amongst the three elements—the SDGs, social-ecological resilience and climate change—as a positive feedback loop. We argue that long-term memory encoded in historical, archaeological and related ‘palaeo-data’ is central to understanding each of these elements of the feedback loop, especially when long-term fluctuations are inherent in social-ecological systems and their responses to abrupt change. Yet, there is scant reference to the valuable contribution that can be made by these data from the past in the SDGs or their targets and indicators. The historical and archaeological records emphasise the importance of some key themes running through the SDGs including how diversity, inclusion, learning and innovation can reduce vulnerability to abrupt change, and the role of connectivity. Using paleo-data, we demonstrate how changes in the extent of water-related ecosystems as measured by indicator 6.6.1 may simply be related to natural hydroclimate variability, rather than reflecting actual progress towards Target 6.6. This highlights issues associated with using SDG indicator baselines predicated on short-term and very recent data only. Within the context of the contributions from long-term data to inform the positive feedback loop, we ask whether our current inability to substantively combat anthropogenic climate change threatens achieving both the SDGS and enhanced resilience to climate change itself. We argue that long-term records are central to understanding how and what will improve resilience and enhance our ability to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. However, for uptake of these data to occur, improved understanding of their quality and potential by policymakers and managers is required.
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    Warmer and drier conditions have increased the potential for large and severe fire seasons across south-eastern Australia
    Collins, L ; Clarke, H ; Clarke, MF ; McColl Gausden, SC ; Nolan, RH ; Penman, T ; Bradstock, R (WILEY, 2022-04-26)
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    Moving to a future of smart stormwater management: A review and framework for terminology, research, and future perspectives.
    Webber, JL ; Fletcher, T ; Farmani, R ; Butler, D ; Melville-Shreeve, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-30)
    Stormwater hazards are a significant threat across the globe. These are continuing to increase in line with urbanisation and climate change, leading to a recognition that the historic paradigm of passive management using centralised infrastructure is insufficient to manage future hazards to our society, environment, and economy. The cross-sector Internet of Things revolution has inspired a new generation of smart stormwater management systems which offer an effective, cost beneficial and adaptive solution to enhance network capacities and reduce hazards. However, despite growing prominence within research, this technology remains under-utilised, in a large part due to fragmented and inconsistent alignment and terminology, obscuring the strategic co-ordination of research. We respond to this through systematically reviewing the terminology, practice and trajectory for smart stormwater management and developing a framework which can be applied to both coordinate and understand the existing research landscape, as well as identifying key research gaps for future development. We find that literature almost universally agrees that smart technology is, or will be, beneficial to stormwater management and that technology has reached partial maturity in terms of quantity management, although this has not yet transferred to water quality. However, research is dominated by proof-of-concept modelling studies, with limited practical application beyond real time control of large assets, individual pilot studies and monitoring. We recommend that future research explores and evidences the substantial benefits likely through expanding current implementation towards a coordinated, decentralised, and optimised catchment-scale approach.
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    Reconceptualizing the hyporheic zone for nonperennial rivers and streams.
    DelVecchia, AG ; Shanafield, M ; Zimmer, MA ; Busch, MH ; Krabbenhoft, CA ; Stubbington, R ; Kaiser, KE ; Burrows, RM ; Hosen, J ; Datry, T ; Kampf, SK ; Zipper, SC ; Fritz, K ; Costigan, K ; Allen, DC (University of Chicago Press, 2022-04-22)
    Nonperennial streams dominate global river networks and are increasing in occurrence across space and time. When surface flow ceases or the surface water dries, flow or moisture can be retained in the subsurface sediments of the hyporheic zone, supporting aquatic communities and ecosystem processes. However, hydrological and ecological definitions of the hyporheic zone have been developed in perennial rivers and emphasize the mixing of water and organisms, respectively, from both the surface stream and groundwater. The adaptation of such definitions to include both humid and dry unsaturated conditions could promote characterization of how hydrological and biogeochemical variability shape ecological communities within nonperennial hyporheic zones, advancing our understanding of both ecosystem structure and function in these habitats. To conceptualize hyporheic zones for nonperennial streams, we review how water sources and surface and subsurface structure influence hydrological and physicochemical conditions. We consider the extent of this zone and how biogeochemistry and ecology might vary with surface states. We then link these components to the composition of nonperennial stream communities. Next, we examine literature to identify priorities for hydrological and ecological research exploring nonperennial hyporheic zones. Lastly, by integrating hydrology, biogeochemistry, and ecology, we recommend a multidisciplinary conceptualization of the nonperennial hyporheic zone as the porous subsurface streambed sediments that shift between lotic, lentic, humid, and dry conditions in space and time to support aquatic-terrestrial biodiversity. As river drying increases in extent because of global change, we call for holistic, interdisciplinary research across the terrestrial and aquatic sciences to apply this conceptualization to characterize hyporheic zone structure and function across the full spectrum of hydrological states.
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    Interspecies Cultures and Future Design
    Parker, D ; Soanes, K ; Roudavski, S (V&R unipress, 2022-04-11)
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    Wood Permeability Assessment of Young Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.)
    Damayanti, R ; Krisdianto, K ; Ilic, J ; Pari, G ; Vinden, P ; Ozarska, B (Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia, 2021-01-26)
    Wood properties of young teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is inferior, and then preservative treatment is one possible solution to enhance its service life. The uptake and movement of preservatives through wood cell structure is directly connected to the wood permeability. There are two simple methods to identify wood permeability: water soaking and bubble test methods. This paper assesses the young teak permeability by water soaking and bubble test methods. The assessment was conducted into five cm thick young-teak discs by soaking in the red-dye water and blowing air into the discs which had been coated with soap. Results show that the heartwood is less permeable than sapwood. Red-dye penetrates almost 100% of the sapwood area, and the red-dye did not penetrate in the heartwood. Red-dye only penetrates in the cracked heartwood through the void volume in the cracking heartwood. There is a transition zone between sapwood and heartwood, and it is refractory. Bubble test with air pressure from compressor could open the air-pathway in the heartwood and sapwood of young-teak discs taken from Bogor. The bubble test result of young-teak discs from Madiun showed air-pathway only in the sapwood, but heartwood. The air pressure is not capable of moving the vapour through the wood cell. It indicates that the heartwood of young-teak from Madiun is less permeable and less possibility for pressure treatment.