School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences - Research Publications

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    Willingness to Pay for Conservation of the Asian Elephant in Nakai Nam Theun National Protected Area in Laos
    Chanthasene, S ; Phimmavong, S ; Baral, H ; Wayakone, S ; Wanneng, P (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2022)
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    Carbon footprints, informed consumer decisions and shifts towards responsible agriculture, forestry, and other land uses?
    van Noordwijk, M ; Pham, TT ; Leimona, B ; Duguma, LA ; Baral, H ; Khasanah, N ; Dewi, S ; Minang, PA (OAE Publishing Inc., 2022-01-01)
    The urgent global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions depends on political commitments to common but differentiated responsibility. Carbon footprints as a metric of attributable emissions reflect individually determined contributions within, and aggregated national contributions between, countries. Footprints per unit product (e.g., of food, feed, fuel, or fiber) require a lifecycle analysis and support individual decisions on consumption and lifestyles. This perspective presents a framework for analysis that connects the various operationalizations and their use in informing consumer and policy decisions. Footprints show geographical variation and are changing as part of political-economic and social-ecological systems. Articulation of footprints may trigger further change. Carbon footprints partially correlate with water and biodiversity footprints as related ecological footprint concepts. The multifunctionality of land use, as a solution pathway, can be reflected in aggregated footprint metrics. Credible footprint metrics can contribute to change but only if political commitments and social-cultural values and responsibilities align.
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    INCREASING RICE PRODUCTIVITY IN DEGRADED PEATLANDS USING IMPROVED PLANTING METHODS AND RICE VARIETIES
    Cahya, M ; Suwignyo, RA ; Sodikin, E ; Baral, H (Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, 2022-03-13)
    Sonor farming practical has become a habit for local community of South Sumatra. In fact, this agricultural practice still results in low production. This research was conducted to determine the comparison of planting methods by farmers with improving planting methods with 2 new high yielding varieties. This research was conducted in Perigi Village, Pangkalan Lampam District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province from December 2019 to April 2020. The research method used was a Split Plot Design with two factors, namely factor 1 was rice varieties and factor 2 was planting method, where the main plot was planting method including: T1: Broadcasting 25 kg/ha, T2: Broadcasting 75 kg/ha, T3: Legowo 2: 1 (20x40x10 cm), and T4: transplanting (20x20 cm) and the sub plot rice varieties, V1: Inpari 30 and V2: Inpara 3. There are 8 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The results showed that the improvement of planting methods showed an increasing in yield in terms of total tiller number, productive tiller number, grain number per panicles, grain weight panicles, grain weight per m2, and plant biomass. The Legowo method had higher productivity than otherplanting method with rice productivity 3.7 tonnes per ha. The Inpara 3 showed better growth and production on degraded peatlands.
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    Wood-based solutions for forests and people: An editorial to this Special Issue
    Kim, YS ; Baral, H ; Rhee, H ; Pagdee, A ; Gautam, A ; Saxena, A (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-01)
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    Restoring Land and Growing Renewable Energy: Opportunities, Challenges, and the Future Steps
    Maimunah, S ; Rahman, SA ; Baral, H (JIPI, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, 2021-06-28)
    Primary energy demand in Indonesia has rapidly increased, i.e., 43.33% between 2005 and 2016, while domestic energy supply failed to fulfill these needs leading to the reliance on the energy import. Meanwhile, a vast area of degraded land in Indonesia also created an opportunity for biofuel production, fulfilling energy demand, as well as restoring the land with environmental and socio-economic benefits. This paper provides an overview of identified potential and challenges associated with biofuel production from degraded land in Indonesia. Our preliminary findings highlighted that some biofuel species in Indonesia are suitable to grow in degraded land and potentially restore the land that may not be suitable for current agricultural production and/or reforestation. The initial finding also shows that culturally familiar species and stable markets are favorable terms of biofuel-species selection for the landowners. Supportive agricultural-extension services such as knowledge and technology for honey production can provide an added value in this concept, in addition to social (e.g., strengthening social solidarity and employment opportunities) and environmental (e.g., carbon storage, soil moisture, erosion control, and biodiversity) benefits. Meanwhile, to create this overall initiative to be successful, a supportive measure from the policymakers is needed. Further research on the capacity of biofuel species to restore degraded lands in different biophysical profiles. Analysis of biofuel production feedstocks and potential co-benefits viable business models, and the stable market is necessary to maximize benefit from biofuel production and to restore the degraded lands in Indonesia.   Keywords: biofuel production, renewable energy, restoring
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    Assessment of Potential Ecotourism Site in Xaisomboun, Central Laos
    Buaxaiya, S ; Phompila, C ; Phengsopha, K ; Chanthavong, B ; Nanthavongduangsy, K ; Thongmanivong, S ; Baral, H (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2021)
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    Suitability of large-scale tree plantation models in Africa, Asia and Latin America for forest landscape restoration objectives
    Péroches, A ; Baral, H ; Chesnes, M ; Lopez-Sampson, A ; Lescuyer, G (CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique Pour le Developpement), 2022-03-16)
    Today, tree plantations play a crucial role in supplying wood and wood-based products. They supply almost half of global demand, as well as supporting a diversity of ecosystem services. In tropical and subtropical areas, where tree growth is optimum and large tracts of land are available, forest restoration is presented as one of the most effective strategies for climate change mitigation. For these reasons, large-scale tree plantations are being encouraged in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Based on a review of the literature and of public databases on forest plantations, we drew up a typology of large-scale tree plantations in Latin America, Africa and Asia using four criteria: the management objective (production versus protection), number of species planted (multi-species versus mono-species), origin of species (exotic versus indigenous) and management status (industrial companies, private smallholders, state). Our analysis identified seven main plantation types and reveals that the two most common types represent almost 60% of the total planted area: (1) private mono-species plantations using exotic species; and (2) public production-oriented mono/multi-species plantations of indigenous trees. Numerous experimental studies were conducted in the 1950s and 1960s with a wide range of tree plantation models. However, few were adopted by operators because the production rates and financial returns were considered low. The dominant tree plantation types are failing to meet most of the forest restoration objectives set out in the Bonn Challenge (i.e., productivity, carbon storage, biodiversity conservation, rural livelihoods). Alternative large-scale tree plantation models could be promoted by focusing on the other goods and services that plantations can provide. This could be achieved if more diverse stakeholders were involved in plantation design and management processes, and if appropriate technical, financial, and institutional incentives were developed.
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    Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) growth performance on different types of degraded peatlands in Central Kalimantan
    Leksono, B ; Windyarini, E ; Hasnah, TM ; Saijo, ; Fahruni, ; Maimunah, S ; Artati, Y ; Baral, H (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-26)
    Abstract To achieve its national goals in climate and landscape resilience, including bioenergy production, the Government of Indonesia has launched an initiative to restore 14 million hectares of degraded land, including 2 million hectares of peatlands, by 2030. Here we present early findings on tamanu adaptability and tree growth (height, diameter and branches) on two types of degraded peatlands in Central Kalimantan. The paper reports peatland type and tamanu tree growth and adaptability in a 3-ha plantation trial plot over three years and a 2-ha plot over two years in Kalampangan and Buntoi villages. Results show survival rates of 82% in the plot on ombrogenous peat in Kalampangan and 81% on topogenous peat in Buntoi. Furthermore, the growth performance of 2-year-old tamanu trees on topogenous peat in Buntoi with an average height of 1.74 m and diameter of 3.97 cm at 5 cm above ground level and 15 branches was better than on ombrogenous peat in Kalampangan with an average height of 0.68 m and diameter of 1.43 cm at 5cm above ground level and five branches. While initial survival and tree growth results are promising, further monitoring of flowering and fruiting is necessary to determine tamanu’s viability for biodiesel production on degraded peatlands.
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    The structure and pattern of global partnerships in the REDD plus mechanism
    Shin, S ; Park, MS ; Lee, H ; Baral, H (ELSEVIER, 2021-11-12)
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    Community perception of ecosystem services from commercially managed forests in Bhutan
    Wangchuk, J ; Choden, K ; Sears, RR ; Baral, H ; Yoezer, D ; Tamang, KTD ; Choden, T ; Wangdi, N ; Dorji, S ; Dukpa, D ; Tshering, K ; Thinley, C ; Dhendup, T (ELSEVIER, 2021-07-08)