School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences - Research Publications

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    Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) growth performance on different types of degraded peatlands in Central Kalimantan
    Leksono, B ; Windyarini, E ; Hasnah, TM ; Saijo, ; Fahruni, ; Maimunah, S ; Artati, Y ; Baral, H (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-26)
    Abstract To achieve its national goals in climate and landscape resilience, including bioenergy production, the Government of Indonesia has launched an initiative to restore 14 million hectares of degraded land, including 2 million hectares of peatlands, by 2030. Here we present early findings on tamanu adaptability and tree growth (height, diameter and branches) on two types of degraded peatlands in Central Kalimantan. The paper reports peatland type and tamanu tree growth and adaptability in a 3-ha plantation trial plot over three years and a 2-ha plot over two years in Kalampangan and Buntoi villages. Results show survival rates of 82% in the plot on ombrogenous peat in Kalampangan and 81% on topogenous peat in Buntoi. Furthermore, the growth performance of 2-year-old tamanu trees on topogenous peat in Buntoi with an average height of 1.74 m and diameter of 3.97 cm at 5 cm above ground level and 15 branches was better than on ombrogenous peat in Kalampangan with an average height of 0.68 m and diameter of 1.43 cm at 5cm above ground level and five branches. While initial survival and tree growth results are promising, further monitoring of flowering and fruiting is necessary to determine tamanu’s viability for biodiesel production on degraded peatlands.
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    Growth performance of Calophyllum inophyllum at a bioenergy trial plot in Bukit Soeharto Research and Education Forest, East Kalimantan
    Leksono, B ; Sukartiningsih, ; Windyarini, E ; Adinugraha, HA ; Artati, Y ; Kwon, J ; Baral, H (IOP Publishing, 2021-05-17)
    Abstract The Indonesian government has committed to providing its entire population with energy through the National Energy Policy, which highlights the importance of diversification, environmental sustainability, and enhanced deployment of domestic energy resources. The contribution of new and renewable energy (NRE) to the nation’s energy supply is mandated to reach 23% by 2025, with bioenergy an important NRE alternative. If developed and deployed appropriately, bioenergy plantations have potential to restore degraded land and enhance biodiversity and environmental services while supporting rural livelihoods. As a potential biofuel tree species suited to the tropics, Calophyllum inophyllum (nyamplung) is being tested across wide-ranging degraded forest conditions in Indonesia. Nyamplung is a potential biodiesel alternative as it grows well in harsh environmental conditions, produces non-edible seed oil, has high amounts of kernel oil and fruits profusely. Here we report growth performance in a plantation trial plot established in February 2018, on previously burned land in Mulawarman University’s Bukit Soeharto Research and Educational Forest. Growth of this two-year-old plantation is strong compared to other Indonesian sites, with average survival rate above 90% on Ultisol soil, which is classified as low fertility and acidic. The findings reveal that different doses of fertilizer applications and slope gradient have no significant effects on growth performance. In addition, trees have already started to flower and fruit, and are colonized by bird species and insects, including bees and butterflies. The study indicates that nyamplung adapts well to different land and soil types. Bioenergy plantations on degraded land are a promising approach for land restoration, and enhance native biodiversity and environmental services while providing a source of renewable energy.
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    Using milk tanker pickup and weather data to quantify the impacts of heat stress on milk production in Australia
    Meyer, RS ; Graham, A-M ; Hepworth, G ; Eckard, RJ (Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, 2021-12-16)
    Due to high metabolic heat production, dairy cows are more sensitive to heat stress than other livestock. This has consequences on the animal’s welfare and productivity. Reductions in milk production can occur from relatively mild temperatures with the degree of impact increasing with increasing severity of heat exposure. The degree to which heat stress impacts milk production, farm income, and milk supply is becoming increasingly important as the duration and frequency of heat waves increases. This analysis aims to provide estimates of the sensitivity of milk production on Australian dairy farms under heat stress situations. The milk tanker pickup data from three dairy companies was used to investigate the on-farm impacts of heat stress on milk production in three regions of Australia. Milk production and weather data were matched based on the postcode of the farm and Bureau of Meteorology weather station. Weather data were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI) using a formula typically used in Australian studies. The THI is commonly used to quantify the effects of heat stress by combining the effects of temperature and relative humidity. Data that did not meet pre-defined quality criteria were eliminated from the analysis. For instance, records that occurred three or more days since the previous milk pickup, data from farms with less than one year of observations, and years in which more than 10 records were missing between October and April, inclusive, were excluded. Over 960,000 records from 1,286 farms are included in the regional analysis. Linear mixed effect models were fitted to the data from each of three regions using R. The estimated response of milk volume (L) and milk solids (kg) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are summarised in Table 1. Models using THI values averaged over 7-days, consistently performed better than those averaged over shorter periods. THI values based on minimum and average temperatures performed slightly, but consistently, better than those based on maximum temperature.
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    Towards a systems approach for river basin management-Lessons from Australia's largest river
    Thompson, RM ; Bond, N ; Poff, NL ; Byron, N (WILEY, 2019-06-01)
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    Assessment of environmental flow scenarios using state-and-transition models
    Bond, NR ; Grigg, N ; Roberts, J ; McGinness, H ; Nielsen, D ; O'Brien, M ; Overton, I ; Pollino, C ; Reid, JRW ; Stratford, D (WILEY, 2018-08-01)
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    Eliciting group judgements about replicability: A technical implementation of the IDEA Protocol
    Pearson, ER ; Fraser, H ; Bush, M ; Mody, F ; Widjaja, I ; Head, A ; Wilkinson, DP ; Wintle, B ; Sinnott, R ; Vesk, P ; Burgman, M ; Fidler, F (Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2021-01-01)
    In recent years there has been increased interest in replicating prior research. One of the biggest challenges to assessing replicability is the cost in resources and time that it takes to repeat studies. Thus there is an impetus to develop rapid elicitation protocols that can, in a practical manner, estimate the likelihood that research findings will successfully replicate. We employ a novel implementation of the IDEA ('Investigate', 'Discuss', 'Estimate' and 'Aggregate) protocol, realised through the repliCATS platform. The repliCATS platform is designed to scalably elicit expert opinion about replicability of social and behavioural science research. The IDEA protocol provides a structured methodology for eliciting judgements and reasoning from groups. This paper describes the repliCATS platform as a multi-user cloud-based software platform featuring (1) a technical implementation of the IDEA protocol for eliciting expert opinion on research replicability, (2) capture of consent and demographic data, (3) on-line training on replication concepts, and (4) exporting of completed judgements. The platform has, to date, evaluated 3432 social and behavioural science research claims from 637 participants.
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    Assessing the potential of hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa L.) for the production of environmentally friendly lightweight panels
    Fehrmann, J (The Industrial Hemp Western Australia Association Inc, 2020)
    Presentation prepared for the 2nd Australian Industrial Hemp Conference in Fremantle, WA from 25 -28 February 2020. Abstract and slides.
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    The grass is greener on the other side: understanding the effects of green spaces on Twitter user sentiments
    Lim, KH ; Lee, K ; Kendal, D ; Rashidi, L ; Naghi Zadeh Kakhki, E ; Winter, S ; Vasardani, M (ACM Press, 2018)
    Green spaces are believed to improve the well-being of users in urban areas. While there are urban research exploring the emotional benefits of green spaces, these works are based on user surveys and case studies, which are typically small in scale, intrusive, time-intensive and costly. In contrast to earlier works, we utilize a non-intrusive methodology to understand green space effects at large-scale and in greater detail, via digital traces left by Twitter users. Using this methodology, we perform an empirical study on the effects of green spaces on user sentiments and emotions in Melbourne, Australia and our main findings are: (i) tweets in green spaces evoke more positive and less negative emotions, compared to those in urban areas; (ii) each season affects various emotion types differently; (iii) there are interesting changes in sentiments based on the hour, day and month that a tweet was posted; and (iv) negative sentiments are typically associated with large transport infrastructures such as train interchanges, major road junctions and railway tracks. The novelty of our study is the combination of psychological theory, alongside data collection and analysis techniques on a large-scale Twitter dataset, which overcomes the limitations of traditional methods in urban research.
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    Trees provide energy saving benefits to adjacent buildings for a small water cost
    Livesley, SJ ; Aye, L ; Hes, D ; DAWKINS, A ; LHENDUP, T ; CAFFIN, M ; Williams, NS (Australian Sustainable Cities and Regions Network, 2011)
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    Furniture Production Efficiency in the Indonesian Context
    Prasetyo, V ; Belleville, B ; Ozarska, B (International Conference on Wood Science and Technology, 2018-10-16)
    Most efficiency improvement strategies implemented in furniture manufacturing are data-driven methods. Due to a lack of production systems used in most Indonesian small and medium-sized furniture companies, the evaluation of production efficiency for future improvement seems rather difficult to perform. A wide range of existing evaluation tools and the varying capabilities of the companies to adapt the methods contribute to a problematic evaluation process. Research has been undertaken with the aim to develop a generic efficiency evaluation method and to prioritise a new potential metric to assess and control efficiency in furniture manufacturing. A basic production cost analysis with standardized variables has been demonstrated as a typical method to evaluate production efficiency in multi furniture companies, followed by applying a wood recovery assessment, a Pareto analysis, an X-Y matrix, and process capability analysis. The heartwood proportion of teak (Tectona grandis) has been determined as a key potential efficiency metric to control and monitor teak sawn board quality and its utilisation. Applying process capability analysis with a setting of lower specification limits to the population of teak heartwood rates produces a model to simulate optimal teak utilisation.