Social Work - Research Publications

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    Perceptions of sex-role stereotypes, self-concept, and nursing role ideal in Chinese nursing students
    Holroyd, EA ; Bond, MH ; Chan, HY (BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD, 2002-02)
    AIM: This study examined the relationship between sex-role stereotypes, self-concept and the requisite personality characteristics of an ideal nurse in a cohort of Hong Kong nursing students. METHODS: To rate these concepts a measure of eight comprehensive dimensions of personality perception was administered to 177 nursing students, studying on preregistration and postregistration programs at a Hong Kong tertiary institution. Both male and female nursing students perceived an ideal nurse to possess a profile of traits including being high on the dimensions of emotional stability, application, intellect, helpfulness and restraint. RESULTS: No significant difference between the self-ratings of the male and female students was found, indicating that male students had undergone a highly self-selective process when choosing nursing education under the influence of Chinese cultural stereotypical attitudes towards nursing. A typical Chinese nurse was rated as similar to the typical female in Chinese society by both male and female nursing students. A typical Chinese nurse was rated relatively low on the masculine dimensions of openness, extroversion and assertiveness. The self-ratings of male nursing students more closely approximated the ideal nurse than did the self-ratings of female nursing students. CONCLUSION: The conclusions highlight implications for the recruitment and education of both male and female nursing students in Hong Kong society.
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    The measurement of body-mind-spirit well-being toward multidimensionality and transcultural applicability.
    Ng, SM ; Yau, JKY ; Chan, CLW ; Chan, CHY ; Ho, DYF (Informa UK Limited, 2005)
    The Body-Mind-Spirit model of health promotion (Chan, Ho&Chow, 2002) guided the construction of a multidimensional inventory for assessing holistic health. Named Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being Inventory (BMSWBI), it comprises four scales: Physical Distress, Daily Functioning, Affect, and Spirituality (differentiated from religiosity and conceived as ecumenical). Respondents (674 Chinese adults from Hong Kong) completed the BMSWBI via the Internet. Results indicate that all four scales have high reliability, with alpha coefficients ranging from .87 to .92, and concurrent validity. Factor analysis indicates that (a) positive and negative affect form two distinct factors; and (b) spirituality comprises three distinct aspects, tranquility, resistance to disorientation, and resilience. Spirituality is positively associated with mental well-being, positive affect, satisfaction with life, and hope; but negatively associated with negative affect and perceived stress. These results suggest that the inventory may be used to assess different dimensions of health satisfactorily.
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    The Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART): A body-mind-spirit approach to trauma management.
    Chan, CLW ; Chan, THY ; Ng, SM (Informa UK Limited, 2006)
    This article introduces the Strength-focused and Meaning- oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART) as a model of crisis intervention, which aims at discovering inner strengths through meaning reconstruction. Limitations of conventional crisis management and current findings in post-traumatic growth research are discussed. Instead of adopting a pathological framework, the SMART approach holds a holistic view of health, employs facilitative strategies, and promotes dynamic coping. Intervention components include Eastern spiritual teachings, physical techniques such as yoga and meditation, and psycho-education that promotes meaning reconstruction. Efficacy of the SMART model is assessed with reference to two pilot studies conducted in Hong Kong at the time when the SARS pandemic caused widespread fear and anxiety in the community. Response to potential criticisms of the SMART model is attempted.
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    Managing stress and anxiety through qigong exercise in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Wang, C-W ; Chan, CHY ; Ho, RTH ; Chan, JSM ; Ng, S-M ; Chan, CLW (BMC, 2014-01-10)
    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have documented the effectiveness of qigong exercise in helping people reduce psychological stress and anxiety, but there is a scarcity of systematic reviews evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirteen databases were searched for RCTs from their inception through June 2013. Effects of qigong exercise were pooled across trials. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. RESULTS: Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested that qigong exercise immediately relieved anxiety among healthy adults, compared to lecture attendance and structured movements only. Four RCTs suggested qigong exercise relieved anxiety (pooled SMD = -0.75; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.40), and three RCTs suggested that qigong exercise reduced stress (pooled SMD = -0.88; 95% CI, -1.22 to -0.55) among healthy subjects following one to three months of qigong practice, compared to wait-list controls. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests that qigong exercise reduces stress and anxiety in healthy adults. However, given the limited number of RCTs and their methodological flaws, further rigorously designed RCTs are needed.
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    Daytime Function in Mind-Body Treatment of Cocurrent Sleep and Mood Disturbances
    Ji, XW ; Chan, HY ; Chan, LW ; Chan, SM (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017-04-28)
    Introduction: Both sleep disturbances and depressive mood are closely associated with wide-range daytime dysfunctions. Yet limited study closely investigates daytime functioning variables after treatments for sleep disturbances either coexisting with or without depressive mood. Methods: Participants Participants were 185 individual with co-existing sleep and mood disturbances (92 in I-BMS; 93 in WLC). Daytime functioning variables were measured by items from Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-day) indicating daytime dysfunctions, Somatic subscale from Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI), Anxiety subscale from Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) represented by Mental and Physical Component scores (MCS and PCS). Data were collected at baseline, post-treatment (8 weeks) and three-month follow-up. Multiple imputations were firstly conducted to evaluate effect size of each daytime variables after treatments. Then, regression analyses were used to reveal associations between daytime variables at follow-up and previous changes in nighttime sleep qualities (PSQI-Night) and mood (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression after minus sleep item- CESD-M) at post-treatment respectively. At last, path analyses were used to understand interplays among daytime functioning, sleep and mood. Results: We found that there was a small to large between-group effect size (0.20–0.70) on daytime functioning and a medium to large within-group effect size (0.53–0.89) in the I-BMS group. After adjusting for group and baseline scores, CESD-M was the most important predictor of daytime functioning. PSQI-day was associated with both PSQI-nightand CESD-M. Path analyses indicated that PSQI-day bridged PSQI-night and CESD-M in a 2-way direction (Χ2=12.36, p=0.34, df=11, Χ2/df=1.1; RMSEA=0.026; CFI=0.989; TLI=0.980; Χ2=12.10, p=0.36, df=11, Χ2/df=1.1; RMSEA=0.023; CFI=0.991; TLI=0.983). Conclusion: Among subjects with co-existing sleep and depressive symptoms, improvement in daytime functioning was predominantly related to improvement in depressive symptoms. Nighttime sleep only related to daytime dysfunction that was specific to sleep disturbances. The phenomenon could be regarded as a primary link. More works are required to understand “sleep-specific” daytime impairments and their roles in the course of concurrent sleep and mood disturbances.
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    Beyond Professional Competence: Effect of Equanimity on the Professional Quality of Life Among Health-Care Professionals Working in Perinatal Bereavement Support
    Yin-Ling Tsui, E ; Hoi-Yan Chan, C ; Fong Tin, A (SAGE Publications, 2016-04)
    Health-care professionals who offer perinatal bereavement support often encountered numerous stressful events in daily practices. Secondary trauma and burnout related to psychological distress are not uncommon. Literatures suggested that further skill training enhances perceived self-competence thus lowering such traumatic impact. Nevertheless, equanimity, an emerging concept in professional development, which is characterized by a sense of unflappability and resilience in face of challenges, is an indispensable element in protecting the well-being of health-care professionals. The current study aimed to examine the role of equanimity and perceived self-competence on professional quality of life among health-care professionals. A city-wide survey study was conducted among 101 individuals who offered perinatal bereavement support at tertiary care institutions in Hong Kong. Perceived self-competence was positively associated with compassion satisfaction (β = .380, p < .001, CI = 0. 038, 0.131) and negatively correlated to burnout (β = −.439, p < .001, CI = −0.148, −0.055), in which both relationships were moderated by the level of equanimity, that is, the impact of perceived self-competence on professional quality of life was only significant among individuals with higher level of equanimity. It implied that perinatal bereavement training should integrate not only knowledge and skills but also component of equanimity training to facilitate the capacity building among frontline health-care professionals.
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    Integrative body-mind-spirit intervention for concurrent sleep and mood disturbances: sleep-specific daytime functioning mediates sleep and mood improvements
    Ji, X-W ; Ng, S-M ; Chan, CLW ; Chan, JSM ; Chan, CHY ; Chung, K-F (WILEY, 2018-02)
    Sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms are associated closely with daytime dysfunctions, yet few studies have investigated their temporal relationship in a randomized controlled trial. We investigated the inter-relationships among sleep, depressive symptoms and daytime functioning following an integrative body-mind-spirit (I-BMS) intervention. One hundred and eighty-five participants (mean age 55.28 years, 75.1% female) with co-existing sleep and depressive symptoms were randomized to I-BMS or waiting-list. Daytime functioning variables included the daytime dysfunction items of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-day), Somatic Symptom Inventory, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Short Form Health Survey collected at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Sleep and depressive symptoms were measured by the sleep items of the PSQI (PSQI-night) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (excluding the sleep item) (CESD-M). Regression and path analyses were used to understand the role of daytime functioning in sleep and depressive symptoms. We found significant group and time effects on almost all daytime variables and significant group × time interactions on PSQI-day and somatic symptoms. The adjusted regression model showed that CESD-M was associated with all daytime variables. However, PSQI-night was associated only with PSQI-day. Path analyses indicated that PSQI-day bridged PSQI-night and CESD-M in a two-way direction after the I-BMS intervention. The conclusion was that, following I-BMS intervention, improvement in daytime functioning was related predominantly to improvement in depressive symptoms. Night-time sleep related only to daytime dysfunction that was specific to sleep disturbances. Therefore, 'sleep-specific daytime impairment' could be regarded as a major link from night-time sleep to depressive symptoms. More studies are required to understand the concept of 'sleep-specific daytime impairment'.
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    Protocol for Psychosocial Interventions Based on Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit (IBMS) Model for Children with Eczema and Their Parent Caregivers
    Fung, YL ; Lau, BHP ; Tam, MYJ ; Xie, Q ; Chan, CLW ; Chan, CHY (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-01-02)
    Purpose: Eczema is a pediatric skin disease that affects the psychosocial well-being of both children and their parent caregivers. This paper outlines a protocol for an experimental study that evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial empowerment program for children with eczema and their parent caregivers. Method: A multi-center randomized controlled trial is proposed, where parent-child dyads are randomized into two arms: an intervention group and wait-list control group. The intervention is delivered to participants in a parallel group format based on the Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit model which focuses on holistic well-being. Quality of life is measured before and after the intervention is provided, and five weeks after the intervention has been completed. Discussion: The suggested model fills a research gap in existing interventions, and provides new knowledge by evaluating the effectiveness of a tailored psychosocial intervention, delivered in group settings, for parent-child dyads affected by eczema.
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    From entanglement to equanimity: an application of a holistic healing approach into social work practice with infertile couples
    Yao, SY ; Chan, CHY ; Crisp, B (Taylor & Francis, 2017-04-07)
    This international volume provides a comprehensive account of contemporary research, new perspectives and cutting-edge issues surrounding religion and spirituality in social work.
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    Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit Social Work: An Empirically Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment
    Lee, MY ; Chan, CCHY ; Chan, CLW ; Leung, PPY ; Ng, S-M ; Lee, MY ; Chan, CHY ; Chan, CLW ; Ng, S-M ; Leung, PPY (Oxford University Press, 2018)
    The second edition represents a major revision from the original book, featuring numerous case studies and a robust companion website including demonstration videos and reproducible client handouts.