Business Administration - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    bamlss: A Lego Toolbox for Flexible Bayesian Regression (and Beyond)
    Umlauf, N ; Klein, N ; Simon, T ; Zeileis, A (JOURNAL STATISTICAL SOFTWARE, 2021-11-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Review of guidance papers on regression modeling in statistical series of medical journals.
    Wallisch, C ; Bach, P ; Hafermann, L ; Klein, N ; Sauerbrei, W ; Steyerberg, EW ; Heinze, G ; Rauch, G ; topic group 2 of the STRATOS initiative, ; Mathes, T (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    Although regression models play a central role in the analysis of medical research projects, there still exist many misconceptions on various aspects of modeling leading to faulty analyses. Indeed, the rapidly developing statistical methodology and its recent advances in regression modeling do not seem to be adequately reflected in many medical publications. This problem of knowledge transfer from statistical research to application was identified by some medical journals, which have published series of statistical tutorials and (shorter) papers mainly addressing medical researchers. The aim of this review was to assess the current level of knowledge with regard to regression modeling contained in such statistical papers. We searched for target series by a request to international statistical experts. We identified 23 series including 57 topic-relevant articles. Within each article, two independent raters analyzed the content by investigating 44 predefined aspects on regression modeling. We assessed to what extent the aspects were explained and if examples, software advices, and recommendations for or against specific methods were given. Most series (21/23) included at least one article on multivariable regression. Logistic regression was the most frequently described regression type (19/23), followed by linear regression (18/23), Cox regression and survival models (12/23) and Poisson regression (3/23). Most general aspects on regression modeling, e.g. model assumptions, reporting and interpretation of regression results, were covered. We did not find many misconceptions or misleading recommendations, but we identified relevant gaps, in particular with respect to addressing nonlinear effects of continuous predictors, model specification and variable selection. Specific recommendations on software were rarely given. Statistical guidance should be developed for nonlinear effects, model specification and variable selection to better support medical researchers who perform or interpret regression analyses.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Statistical model building: Background "knowledge" based on inappropriate preselection causes misspecification
    Hafermann, L ; Becher, H ; Herrmann, C ; Klein, N ; Heinze, G ; Rauch, G (BMC, 2021-09-29)
    BACKGROUND: Statistical model building requires selection of variables for a model depending on the model's aim. In descriptive and explanatory models, a common recommendation often met in the literature is to include all variables in the model which are assumed or known to be associated with the outcome independent of their identification with data driven selection procedures. An open question is, how reliable this assumed "background knowledge" truly is. In fact, "known" predictors might be findings from preceding studies which may also have employed inappropriate model building strategies. METHODS: We conducted a simulation study assessing the influence of treating variables as "known predictors" in model building when in fact this knowledge resulting from preceding studies might be insufficient. Within randomly generated preceding study data sets, model building with variable selection was conducted. A variable was subsequently considered as a "known" predictor if a predefined number of preceding studies identified it as relevant. RESULTS: Even if several preceding studies identified a variable as a "true" predictor, this classification is often false positive. Moreover, variables not identified might still be truly predictive. This especially holds true if the preceding studies employed inappropriate selection methods such as univariable selection. CONCLUSIONS: The source of "background knowledge" should be evaluated with care. Knowledge generated on preceding studies can cause misspecification.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Bayesian Effect Selection in Structured Additive Distributional Regression Models
    Klein, N ; Carlan, M ; Kneib, T ; Lang, S ; Wagner, H (INT SOC BAYESIAN ANALYSIS, 2021-06-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Multivariate conditional transformation models
    Klein, N ; Hothorn, T ; Barbanti, L ; Kneib, T (WILEY, 2020-12-13)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Bayesian variable selection for non-Gaussian responses: a marginally calibrated copula approach
    Klein, N ; Smith, MS (WILEY, 2020-09-02)
    We propose a new highly flexible and tractable Bayesian approach to undertake variable selection in non-Gaussian regression models. It uses a copula decomposition for the joint distribution of observations on the dependent variable. This allows the marginal distribution of the dependent variable to be calibrated accurately using a nonparametric or other estimator. The family of copulas employed are "implicit copulas" that are constructed from existing hierarchical Bayesian models widely used for variable selection, and we establish some of their properties. Even though the copulas are high dimensional, they can be estimated efficiently and quickly using Markov chain Monte Carlo. A simulation study shows that when the responses are non-Gaussian, the approach selects variables more accurately than contemporary benchmarks. A real data example in the Web Appendix illustrates that accounting for even mild deviations from normality can lead to a substantial increase in accuracy. To illustrate the full potential of our approach, we extend it to spatial variable selection for fMRI. Using real data, we show our method allows for voxel-specific marginal calibration of the magnetic resonance signal at over 6000 voxels, leading to an increase in the quality of the activation maps.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Systematic review of education and practical guidance on regression modeling for medical researchers who lack a strong statistical background: Study protocol
    Bach, P ; Wallisch, C ; Klein, N ; Hafermann, L ; Sauerbrei, W ; Steyerberg, EW ; Heinze, G ; Rauch, G ; Bender, R (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-12-21)
    In the last decades, statistical methodology has developed rapidly, in particular in the field of regression modeling. Multivariable regression models are applied in almost all medical research projects. Therefore, the potential impact of statistical misconceptions within this field can be enormous Indeed, the current theoretical statistical knowledge is not always adequately transferred to the current practice in medical statistics. Some medical journals have identified this problem and published isolated statistical articles and even whole series thereof. In this systematic review, we aim to assess the current level of education on regression modeling that is provided to medical researchers via series of statistical articles published in medical journals. The present manuscript is a protocol for a systematic review that aims to assess which aspects of regression modeling are covered by statistical series published in medical journals that intend to train and guide applied medical researchers with limited statistical knowledge. Statistical paper series cannot easily be summarized and identified by common keywords in an electronic search engine like Scopus. We therefore identified series by a systematic request to statistical experts who are part or related to the STRATOS Initiative (STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies). Within each identified article, two raters will independently check the content of the articles with respect to a predefined list of key aspects related to regression modeling. The content analysis of the topic-relevant articles will be performed using a predefined report form to assess the content as objectively as possible. Any disputes will be resolved by a third reviewer. Summary analyses will identify potential methodological gaps and misconceptions that may have an important impact on the quality of analyses in medical research. This review will thus provide a basis for future guidance papers and tutorials in the field of regression modeling which will enable medical researchers 1) to interpret publications in a correct way, 2) to perform basic statistical analyses in a correct way and 3) to identify situations when the help of a statistical expert is required.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Cold War spy satellite images reveal long-term declines of a philopatric keystone species in response to cropland expansion: Spy satellites reveal species declines
    Munteanu, C ; Kamp, J ; Nita, MD ; Klein, N ; Kraemer, BM ; Müller, D ; Koshkina, A ; Prishchepov, AV ; Kuemmerle, T (Royal Society, The, 2020-05-27)
    Agricultural expansion drives biodiversity loss globally, but impact assessments are biased towards recent time periods. This can lead to a gross underestimation of species declines in response to habitat loss, especially when species declines are gradual and occur over long time periods. Using Cold War spy satellite images (Corona), we show that a grassland keystone species, the bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), continues to respond to agricultural expansion that happened more than 50 years ago. Although burrow densities of the bobak marmot today are highest in croplands, densities declined most strongly in areas that were persistently used as croplands since the 1960s. This response to historical agricultural conversion spans roughly eight marmot generations and suggests the longest recorded response of a mammal species to agricultural expansion. We also found evidence for remarkable philopatry: nearly half of all burrows retained their exact location since the 1960s, and this was most pronounced in grasslands. Our results stress the need for farsighted decisions, because contemporary land management will affect biodiversity decades into the future. Finally, our work pioneers the use of Corona historical Cold War spy satellite imagery for ecology. This vastly underused global remote sensing resource provides a unique opportunity to expand the time horizon of broad-scale ecological studies.