Business Administration - Research Publications
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ItemMultivariate conditional transformation modelsKlein, N ; Hothorn, T ; Barbanti, L ; Kneib, T (WILEY, 2020-12-13)
ItemBayesian variable selection for non-Gaussian responses: a marginally calibrated copula approachKlein, N ; Smith, MS (WILEY, 2020-09-02)We propose a new highly flexible and tractable Bayesian approach to undertake variable selection in non-Gaussian regression models. It uses a copula decomposition for the joint distribution of observations on the dependent variable. This allows the marginal distribution of the dependent variable to be calibrated accurately using a nonparametric or other estimator. The family of copulas employed are "implicit copulas" that are constructed from existing hierarchical Bayesian models widely used for variable selection, and we establish some of their properties. Even though the copulas are high dimensional, they can be estimated efficiently and quickly using Markov chain Monte Carlo. A simulation study shows that when the responses are non-Gaussian, the approach selects variables more accurately than contemporary benchmarks. A real data example in the Web Appendix illustrates that accounting for even mild deviations from normality can lead to a substantial increase in accuracy. To illustrate the full potential of our approach, we extend it to spatial variable selection for fMRI. Using real data, we show our method allows for voxel-specific marginal calibration of the magnetic resonance signal at over 6000 voxels, leading to an increase in the quality of the activation maps.
ItemSystematic review of education and practical guidance on regression modeling for medical researchers who lack a strong statistical background: Study protocolBach, P ; Wallisch, C ; Klein, N ; Hafermann, L ; Sauerbrei, W ; Steyerberg, EW ; Heinze, G ; Rauch, G ; Bender, R (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2020-12-21)In the last decades, statistical methodology has developed rapidly, in particular in the field of regression modeling. Multivariable regression models are applied in almost all medical research projects. Therefore, the potential impact of statistical misconceptions within this field can be enormous Indeed, the current theoretical statistical knowledge is not always adequately transferred to the current practice in medical statistics. Some medical journals have identified this problem and published isolated statistical articles and even whole series thereof. In this systematic review, we aim to assess the current level of education on regression modeling that is provided to medical researchers via series of statistical articles published in medical journals. The present manuscript is a protocol for a systematic review that aims to assess which aspects of regression modeling are covered by statistical series published in medical journals that intend to train and guide applied medical researchers with limited statistical knowledge. Statistical paper series cannot easily be summarized and identified by common keywords in an electronic search engine like Scopus. We therefore identified series by a systematic request to statistical experts who are part or related to the STRATOS Initiative (STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies). Within each identified article, two raters will independently check the content of the articles with respect to a predefined list of key aspects related to regression modeling. The content analysis of the topic-relevant articles will be performed using a predefined report form to assess the content as objectively as possible. Any disputes will be resolved by a third reviewer. Summary analyses will identify potential methodological gaps and misconceptions that may have an important impact on the quality of analyses in medical research. This review will thus provide a basis for future guidance papers and tutorials in the field of regression modeling which will enable medical researchers 1) to interpret publications in a correct way, 2) to perform basic statistical analyses in a correct way and 3) to identify situations when the help of a statistical expert is required.
ItemCold War spy satellite images reveal long-term declines of a philopatric keystone species in response to cropland expansion: Spy satellites reveal species declinesMunteanu, C ; Kamp, J ; Nita, MD ; Klein, N ; Kraemer, BM ; Müller, D ; Koshkina, A ; Prishchepov, AV ; Kuemmerle, T (Royal Society, The, 2020-05-27)Agricultural expansion drives biodiversity loss globally, but impact assessments are biased towards recent time periods. This can lead to a gross underestimation of species declines in response to habitat loss, especially when species declines are gradual and occur over long time periods. Using Cold War spy satellite images (Corona), we show that a grassland keystone species, the bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), continues to respond to agricultural expansion that happened more than 50 years ago. Although burrow densities of the bobak marmot today are highest in croplands, densities declined most strongly in areas that were persistently used as croplands since the 1960s. This response to historical agricultural conversion spans roughly eight marmot generations and suggests the longest recorded response of a mammal species to agricultural expansion. We also found evidence for remarkable philopatry: nearly half of all burrows retained their exact location since the 1960s, and this was most pronounced in grasslands. Our results stress the need for farsighted decisions, because contemporary land management will affect biodiversity decades into the future. Finally, our work pioneers the use of Corona historical Cold War spy satellite imagery for ecology. This vastly underused global remote sensing resource provides a unique opportunity to expand the time horizon of broad-scale ecological studies.