Medicine (RMH) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 80
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Early and progressive dysfunction revealed by in vivo neurite imaging in the rNLS8 TDP-43 mouse model of ALS.
    Zamani, A ; Walker, AK ; Rollo, B ; Ayers, KL ; Farah, R ; O'Brien, TJ ; Wright, DK (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology, progressive loss of motor neurons and muscle dysfunction. Symptom onset can be insidious and diagnosis challenging. Conventional neuroimaging is used to exclude ALS mimics, however more advanced neuroimaging techniques may facilitate an earlier diagnosis. Here, we investigate the potential for neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect microstructural changes in an experimental model of ALS with neuronal doxycycline (Dox)-suppressible overexpression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43). In vivo diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was acquired 1- and 3- weeks following the initiation of hTDP-43 expression (post-Dox) to investigate whether neurite density imaging (NDI) and orientation dispersion imaging (ODI) are affected early in this preclinical model of ALS and if so, how these metrics compare to those derived from the diffusion tensor. Tract-based spatial statistics at 1-week post-Dox, i.e. very early in the disease stage, demonstrated increased NDI in TDP-43 mice but no change in ODI or DTI metrics. At 3-weeks post-Dox, a reduced pattern of increased NDI was observed along with widespread increases in ODI, and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and axial diffusivity (AD). A hypothesis driven analysis of the bilateral corticospinal tracts demonstrated that at 1-week post-Dox, ODI was significantly increased caudally but decreased in the motor cortex of TDP-43 mice. Decreased cortical ODI had normalized by 3-weeks post-Dox and only significant increases were observed. A similar, but inverse pattern in FA was also observed. Together, these results suggest a non-monotonic relationship between DWI metrics and pathophysiological progression with TDP-43 mice exhibiting significantly altered diffusion metrics consistent with early inflammation followed by progressive axonal degeneration. Importantly, significant group-wise changes were observed in the earliest stages of disease when subtle pathology may be more elusive to traditional structural imaging techniques.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Characterising seizure development, behavioural comorbidities and neuroinflammation in a self-sustained electrical status epilepticus model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in C57BL/6J mice
    Thergarajan, P ; Hudson, MR ; Carmichael, I ; Classadonte, J ; Dedeurwaerdere, S ; O'Brien, TJ ; Jones, NC ; Ali, I (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2022-06-15)
    OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) models in rodents are commonly used to research mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) in translational epilepsy research. However, due to differences in susceptibility of mice strains to chemoconvulsants, developing this model in mice is challenging. Mice offer experimental advantages; in particular, the ability to use transgenic strains could provide novel insights about neurobiological mechanisms or ease of genetic modification to test potential therapeutic targets. This study aimed to characterise the neuroinflammation, epileptic seizures and behavioural comorbidities after self-sustained Electrical Status Epilepticus (SSSE) in C57BL/6J mice. METHODS: SSSE was induced in C57BL/6J mice via prolonged electrical stimulation through a bipolar electrode implanted in the ventral hippocampus. Video electroencephalography (vEEG) monitoring was then performed between 1st month (acute timepoint) and 4th month (chronic timepoint). Brain tissues were collected at two timepoints for gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis: 7-days and 16-weeks post-SE. Additionally, at the chronic timepoint, animals underwent a series of neurobehavioural tests. RESULTS: Sixty percent of animals that underwent SSSE developed spontaneous seizures within the first month, and an additional 25% developed seizures at the chronic timepoint. The number of seizures per week during the chronic period ranged from 0.2 to 15.7. Mortality rate was ~9% during or after SSSE. SSSE animals displayed significant spatial memory impairment and depression-like behaviour compared to sham animals. mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines was upregulated at 7-days following SE, but equal to sham levels at 16-weeks. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that SSSE in C57BL/6J mice induces epileptic seizures consistent with those seen in patients with mTLE, along with cognitive and behavioural comorbidities. This model therefore has the potential to be used experimentally to uncover mechanisms to target against epileptogenesis, or to test novel treatment approaches.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Topographic divergence of atypical cortical asymmetry and atrophy patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy
    Park, B-Y ; Lariviere, S ; Rodriguez-Cruces, R ; Royer, J ; Tavakol, S ; Wang, Y ; Caciagli, L ; Caligiuri, ME ; Gambardella, A ; Concha, L ; Keller, SS ; Cendes, F ; Alvim, MKM ; Yasuda, C ; Bonilha, L ; Gleichgerrcht, E ; Focke, NK ; Kreilkamp, BAK ; Domin, M ; von Podewils, F ; Langner, S ; Rummel, C ; Rebsamen, M ; Wiest, R ; Martin, P ; Kotikalapudi, R ; Bender, B ; O'Brien, TJ ; Law, M ; Sinclair, B ; Vivash, L ; Kwan, P ; Desmond, PM ; Malpas, CB ; Lui, E ; Alhusaini, S ; Doherty, CP ; Cavalleri, GL ; Delanty, N ; Kalviainen, R ; Jackson, GD ; Kowalczyk, M ; Mascalchi, M ; Semmelroch, M ; Thomas, RH ; Soltanian-Zadeh, H ; Davoodi-Bojd, E ; Zhang, J ; Lenge, M ; Guerrini, R ; Bartolini, E ; Hamandi, K ; Foley, S ; Weber, B ; Depondt, C ; Absil, J ; Carr, SJA ; Abela, E ; Richardson, MP ; Devinsky, O ; Severino, M ; Striano, P ; Parodi, C ; Tortora, D ; Hatton, SN ; Vos, SB ; Duncan, JS ; Galovic, M ; Whelan, CD ; Bargallo, N ; Pariente, J ; Conde-Blanco, E ; Vaudano, AE ; Tondelli, M ; Meletti, S ; Kong, X-Z ; Francks, C ; Fisher, SE ; Caldairou, B ; Ryten, M ; Labate, A ; Sisodiya, SM ; Thompson, PM ; McDonald, CR ; Bernasconi, A ; Bernasconi, N ; Bernhardt, BC (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-03-25)
    Temporal lobe epilepsy, a common drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, is primarily a limbic network disorder associated with predominant unilateral hippocampal pathology. Structural MRI has provided an in vivo window into whole-brain grey matter structural alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy relative to controls, by either mapping (i) atypical inter-hemispheric asymmetry; or (ii) regional atrophy. However, similarities and differences of both atypical asymmetry and regional atrophy measures have not been systematically investigated. Here, we addressed this gap using the multisite ENIGMA-Epilepsy dataset comprising MRI brain morphological measures in 732 temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 1418 healthy controls. We compared spatial distributions of grey matter asymmetry and atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy, contextualized their topographies relative to spatial gradients in cortical microstructure and functional connectivity calculated using 207 healthy controls obtained from Human Connectome Project and an independent dataset containing 23 temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 53 healthy controls and examined clinical associations using machine learning. We identified a marked divergence in the spatial distribution of atypical inter-hemispheric asymmetry and regional atrophy mapping. The former revealed a temporo-limbic disease signature while the latter showed diffuse and bilateral patterns. Our findings were robust across individual sites and patients. Cortical atrophy was significantly correlated with disease duration and age at seizure onset, while degrees of asymmetry did not show a significant relationship to these clinical variables. Our findings highlight that the mapping of atypical inter-hemispheric asymmetry and regional atrophy tap into two complementary aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy-related pathology, with the former revealing primary substrates in ipsilateral limbic circuits and the latter capturing bilateral disease effects. These findings refine our notion of the neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy and may inform future discovery and validation of complementary MRI biomarkers in temporal lobe epilepsy.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Climate change and epilepsy: Insights from clinical and basic science studies
    Gulcebi, M ; Bartolini, E ; Lee, O ; Lisgaras, CP ; Onat, F ; Mifsud, J ; Striano, P ; Vezzani, A ; Hildebrand, MS ; Jimenez-Jimenez, D ; Junck, L ; Lewis-Smith, D ; Scheffer, IE ; Thijs, RD ; Zuberi, SM ; Blenkinsop, S ; Fowler, HJ ; Foley, A ; Sisodiya, SM ; Balestrini, S ; Berkovic, S ; Cavalleri, G ; Correa, DJ ; Custodio, HM ; Galovic, M ; Guerrini, R ; Henshall, D ; Howard, O ; Hughes, K ; Katsarou, A ; Koeleman, BPC ; Krause, R ; Lowenstein, D ; Mandelenaki, D ; Marini, C ; O'Brien, TJ ; Pace, A ; De Palma, L ; Perucca, P ; Pitkanen, A ; Quinn, F ; Selmer, KK ; Steward, CA ; Swanborough, N ; Thijs, R ; Tittensor, P ; Trivisano, M ; Weckhuysen, S ; Zara, F (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-02-10)
    Climate change is with us. As professionals who place value on evidence-based practice, climate change is something we cannot ignore. The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has demonstrated how global crises can arise suddenly and have a significant impact on public health. Global warming, a chronic process punctuated by acute episodes of extreme weather events, is an insidious global health crisis needing at least as much attention. Many neurological diseases are complex chronic conditions influenced at many levels by changes in the environment. This review aimed to collate and evaluate reports from clinical and basic science about the relationship between climate change and epilepsy. The keywords climate change, seasonal variation, temperature, humidity, thermoregulation, biorhythm, gene, circadian rhythm, heat, and weather were used to search the published evidence. A number of climatic variables are associated with increased seizure frequency in people with epilepsy. Climate change-induced increase in seizure precipitants such as fevers, stress, and sleep deprivation (e.g. as a result of more frequent extreme weather events) or vector-borne infections may trigger or exacerbate seizures, lead to deterioration of seizure control, and affect neurological, cerebrovascular, or cardiovascular comorbidities and risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Risks are likely to be modified by many factors, ranging from individual genetic variation and temperature-dependent channel function, to housing quality and global supply chains. According to the results of the limited number of experimental studies with animal models of seizures or epilepsy, different seizure types appear to have distinct susceptibility to seasonal influences. Increased body temperature, whether in the context of fever or not, has a critical role in seizure threshold and seizure-related brain damage. Links between climate change and epilepsy are likely to be multifactorial, complex, and often indirect, which makes predictions difficult. We need more data on possible climate-driven altered risks for seizures, epilepsy, and epileptogenesis, to identify underlying mechanisms at systems, cellular, and molecular levels for better understanding of the impact of climate change on epilepsy. Further focussed data would help us to develop evidence for mitigation methods to do more to protect people with epilepsy from the effects of climate change.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Behavioral, axonal, and proteomic alterations following repeated mild traumatic brain injury: Novel insights using a clinically relevant rat model
    Pham, L ; Wright, DK ; O'Brien, WT ; Bain, J ; Huang, C ; Sun, M ; Casillas-Espinosa, PM ; Shah, AD ; Schittenhelm, RB ; Sobey, CG ; Brady, RD ; O'Brien, TJ ; Mychasiuk, R ; Shultz, SR ; McDonald, SJ (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-01-01)
    A history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is linked to a number of chronic neurological conditions, however there is still much unknown about the underlying mechanisms. To provide new insights, this study used a clinically relevant model of repeated mTBI in rats to characterize the acute and chronic neuropathological and neurobehavioral consequences of these injuries. Rats were given four sham-injuries or four mTBIs and allocated to 7-day or 3.5-months post-injury recovery groups. Behavioral analysis assessed sensorimotor function, locomotion, anxiety, and spatial memory. Neuropathological analysis included serum quantification of neurofilament light (NfL), mass spectrometry of the hippocampal proteome, and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repeated mTBI rats had evidence of acute cognitive deficits and prolonged sensorimotor impairments. Serum NfL was elevated at 7 days post injury, with levels correlating with sensorimotor deficits; however, no NfL differences were observed at 3.5 months. Several hippocampal proteins were altered by repeated mTBI, including those associated with energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, and impaired neurogenic capacity. Diffusion MRI analysis at 3.5 months found widespread reductions in white matter integrity. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into the nature and progression of repeated mTBI neuropathology that may underlie lingering or chronic neurobehavioral deficits.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A pharmacogenomic assessment of psychiatric adverse drug reactions to levetiracetam
    Campbell, C ; McCormack, M ; Patel, S ; Stapleton, C ; Bobbili, D ; Krause, R ; Depondt, C ; Sills, GJ ; Koeleman, BP ; Striano, P ; Zara, F ; Sander, JW ; Lerche, H ; Kunz, WS ; Stefansson, K ; Stefansson, H ; Doherty, CP ; Heinzen, EL ; Scheffer, IE ; Goldstein, DB ; O'Brien, T ; Cotter, D ; Berkovic, SF ; Sisodiya, SM ; Delanty, N ; Cavalleri, GL (WILEY, 2022-04-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Levetiracetam (LEV) is an effective antiseizure medicine, but 10%-20% of people treated with LEV report psychiatric side-effects, and up to 1% may have psychotic episodes. Pharmacogenomic predictors of these adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have yet to be identified. We sought to determine the contribution of both common and rare genetic variation to psychiatric and behavioral ADRs associated with LEV. METHODS: This case-control study compared cases of LEV-associated behavioral disorder (n = 149) or psychotic reaction (n = 37) to LEV-exposed people with no history of psychiatric ADRs (n = 920). All samples were of European ancestry. We performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis comparing those with LEV ADRs to controls. We estimated the polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia and compared cases with LEV-associated psychotic reaction to controls. Rare variant burden analysis was performed using exome sequence data of cases with psychotic reactions (n = 18) and controls (n = 122). RESULTS: Univariate GWAS found no significant associations with either LEV-associated behavioural disorder or LEV-psychotic reaction. PRS analysis showed that cases of LEV-associated psychotic reaction had an increased PRS for schizophrenia relative to contr ols (p = .0097, estimate = .4886). The rare-variant analysis found no evidence of an increased burden of rare genetic variants in people who had experienced LEV-associated psychotic reaction relative to controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The polygenic burden for schizophrenia is a risk factor for LEV-associated psychotic reaction. To assess the clinical utility of PRS as a predictor, it should be tested in an independent and ideally prospective cohort. Larger sample sizes are required for the identification of significant univariate common genetic signals or rare genetic signals associated with psychiatric LEV ADRs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Machine learning approaches for imaging-based prognostication of the outcome of surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
    Sinclair, B ; Cahill, V ; Seah, J ; Kitchen, A ; Vivash, LE ; Chen, Z ; Malpas, CB ; O'Shea, MF ; Desmond, PM ; Hicks, RJ ; Morokoff, AP ; King, JA ; Fabinyi, GC ; Kaye, AH ; Kwan, P ; Berkovic, SF ; Law, M ; O'Brien, TJ (WILEY, 2022-03-25)
    OBJECTIVES: Around 30% of patients undergoing surgical resection for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) do not obtain seizure freedom. Success of anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) critically depends on the careful selection of surgical candidates, aiming at optimizing seizure freedom while minimizing postoperative morbidity. Structural MRI and FDG-PET neuroimaging are routinely used in presurgical assessment and guide the decision to proceed to surgery. In this study, we evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques applied to standard presurgical MRI and PET imaging features to provide enhanced prognostic value relative to current practice. METHODS: Eighty two patients with drug resistant MTLE were scanned with FDG-PET pre-surgery and T1-weighted MRI pre- and postsurgery. From these images the following features of interest were derived: volume of temporal lobe (TL) hypometabolism, % of extratemporal hypometabolism, presence of contralateral TL hypometabolism, presence of hippocampal sclerosis, laterality of seizure onset volume of tissue resected and % of temporal lobe hypometabolism resected. These measures were used as predictor variables in logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and artificial neural networks. RESULTS: In the study cohort, 24 of 82 (28.3%) who underwent an ATLR for drug-resistant MTLE did not achieve Engel Class I (i.e., free of disabling seizures) outcome at a minimum of 2 years of postoperative follow-up. We found that machine learning approaches were able to predict up to 73% of the 24 ATLR surgical patients who did not achieve a Class I outcome, at the expense of incorrect prediction for up to 31% of patients who did achieve a Class I outcome. Overall accuracies ranged from 70% to 80%, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of .75-.81. We additionally found that information regarding overall extent of both total and significantly hypometabolic tissue resected was crucial to predictive performance, with AUC dropping to .59-.62 using presurgical information alone. Incorporating the laterality of seizure onset and the choice of machine learning algorithm did not significantly change predictive performance. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results indicate that "acceptable" to "good" patient-specific prognostication for drug-resistant MTLE surgery is feasible with machine learning approaches utilizing commonly collected imaging modalities, but that information on the surgical resection region is critical for optimal prognostication.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A phase 1b open-label study of sodium selenate as a disease-modifying treatment for possible behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia
    Vivash, L ; Malpas, CB ; Meletis, C ; Gollant, M ; Eratne, D ; Li, Q-X ; McDonald, S ; O'Brien, WT ; Brodtmann, A ; Darby, D ; Kyndt, C ; Walterfang, M ; Hovens, CM ; Velakoulis, D ; O'Brien, TJ (WILEY, 2022-01-01)
    Introduction: Sodium selenate increases tau dephosphorylation through protein phosphatase 2 activation. Here we report an open-label Phase 1b study of sodium selenate as a disease-modifying treatment for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods: Twelve participants with bvFTD received sodium selenate (15 mg, three times a day) for 52 weeks. Safety assessments were carried out throughout the trial. Primary outcomes were frequency of adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and discontinuations. Secondary outcomes of potential efficacy included cognitive and behavioral assessments, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) whole brain volume, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neurofilament light (NfL) levels, which were measured at baseline and at week 52. Results: Sodium selenate was safe and well tolerated. All participants completed the study, and the majority (64.7%) of reported AEs were mild. One SAE occurred, which was not treatment related. Small declines in MRI and cognitive and behavioral measures were observed over the treatment period. There was no evidence for change in CSF protein levels (t-tau, p-tau, or NfL). Further analysis showed two distinct groups when measuring disease progression markers over the course of the study-one (n = 4) with substantial brain atrophy (2.5% to 6.5% reduction) and cognitive and behavioral decline over the 12-month treatment period, and the second group (n = 7) with no detectable change in cognitive and behavioral measures and less brain atrophy (0.3% to 1.7% reduction). Conclusion: Sodium selenate is safe and well tolerated in patients with bvFTD. Randomized-controlled trials are warranted to investigate potential efficacy.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Sub-acute Changes on MRI Measures of Cerebral Blood Flow and Venous Oxygen Saturation in Concussed Australian Rules Footballers
    Wright, DK ; O'Brien, TJ ; Shultz, SR (SPRINGER, 2022-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion (SRC) is common in collision sport athletes. There is growing evidence that repetitive SRC can have serious neurological consequences, particularly when the repetitive injuries occur when the brain has yet to fully recover from the initial injury. Hence, there is a need to identify biomarkers that are capable of determining SRC recovery so that they can guide clinical decisions pertaining to return-to-play. Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may provide insights into changing energy demands and recovery following SRC. RESULTS: In this study we therefore investigated SvO2 and CBF in a cohort of concussed amateur Australian Football athletes (i.e., Australia's most participated collision sport). Male and female Australian footballers (n = 13) underwent MRI after being cleared to return to play following a mandatory 13-day recovery period and were compared to a group of control Australian footballers (n = 16) with no recent history of SRC (i.e., > 3 months since last SRC). Despite the concussed Australian footballers being cleared to return to play at the time of MRI, we found evidence of significantly increased susceptibility in the global white matter (p = 0.020) and a trend (F5,21 = 2.404, p = 0.071) for reduced relative CBF (relCBF) compared to the control group. Further, there was evidence of an interaction between sex and injury in straight sinus susceptibility values (F1,25 = 3.858, p = 0.061) which were decreased in female SRC athletes (p = 0.053). Of note, there were significant negative correlations between straight sinus susceptibility and relCBF suggesting impaired metabolic function after SRC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and relCBF as sensitive indicators of SRC, and raise further concerns related to SRC guidelines that allow for return-to-play in less than two weeks.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Impaired glymphatic function in the early stages of disease in a TDP-43 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Zamani, A ; Walker, AK ; Rollo, B ; Ayers, KL ; Farah, R ; O'Brien, TJ ; Wright, DK (BMC, 2022-03-15)
    BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest possible impairment of the glymphatic system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To investigate this, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess glymphatic function early in the course of disease in a transgenic mouse with doxycycline (Dox)-controlled expression of cytoplasmic human TDP-43 (hTDP-43ΔNLS), mimicking the key pathology implicated in ALS. METHODS: Adult TDP-43 transgenic and littermate monogenic control mice underwent longitudinal multimodal MRI one and three weeks after the cessation of Dox feed, together with weekly rotarod assessments of motor performance. Glymphatic function was assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to track the clearance of an MR contrast agent injected into the cisterna magna. RESULTS: Compared to their littermate controls, TDP-43 mice exhibited progressive neurodegeneration including that within the primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and corticospinal tract, significant weight loss including gastrocnemius atrophy, and shortened telomere length. Furthermore, in the presence of this ALS-like phenotype, these mice have significantly disrupted glymphatic function. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between glymphatic clearance and ALS disease progression remains to be elucidated, these changes occurred very early in the disease course. This provides initial evidence to suggest that the glymphatic system might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of ALS.