Medical Biology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 2694
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    ERG and c-MYC regulate a critical gene network in BCR::ABL1-driven B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Behrens, K ; Brajanovski, N ; Xu, Z ; Viney, EM ; Dirago, L ; Hediyeh-Zadeh, S ; Davis, MJ ; Pearson, RB ; Sanij, E ; Alexander, WS ; Ng, AP (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2024-03-08)
    Philadelphia chromosome-positive B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), characterized by the BCR::ABL1 fusion gene, remains a poor prognosis cancer needing new therapeutic approaches. Transcriptomic profiling identified up-regulation of oncogenic transcription factors ERG and c-MYC in BCR::ABL1 B-ALL with ERG and c-MYC required for BCR::ABL1 B-ALL in murine and human models. Profiling of ERG- and c-MYC-dependent gene expression and analysis of ChIP-seq data established ERG and c-MYC coordinate a regulatory network in BCR::ABL1 B-ALL that controls expression of genes involved in several biological processes. Prominent was control of ribosome biogenesis, including expression of RNA polymerase I (POL I) subunits, the importance of which was validated by inhibition of BCR::ABL1 cells by POL I inhibitors, including CX-5461, that prevents promoter recruitment and transcription initiation by POL I. Our results reveal an essential ERG- and c-MYC-dependent transcriptional network involved in regulation of metabolic and ribosome biogenesis pathways in BCR::ABL1 B-ALL, from which previously unidentified vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets may emerge.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Combination of bazedoxifene with chemotherapy and SMAC-mimetics for the treatment of colorectal cancer
    Dmello, RS ; Palmieri, M ; Thilakasiri, PS ; Doughty, L ; Nero, TL ; Poh, AR ; To, SQ ; Lee, EF ; Fairlie, WD ; Mielke, L ; Parker, MW ; Poon, IKH ; Batlle, E ; Ernst, M ; Chand, AL (SPRINGERNATURE, 2024-04-10)
    Excessive STAT3 signalling via gp130, the shared receptor subunit for IL-6 and IL-11, contributes to disease progression and poor survival outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. Here, we provide evidence that bazedoxifene inhibits tumour growth via direct interaction with the gp130 receptor to suppress IL-6 and IL-11-mediated STAT3 signalling. Additionally, bazedoxifene combined with chemotherapy synergistically reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in patient-derived colon cancer organoids. We elucidated that the primary mechanism of anti-tumour activity conferred by bazedoxifene treatment occurs via pro-apoptotic responses in tumour cells. Co-treatment with bazedoxifene and the SMAC-mimetics, LCL161 or Birinapant, that target the IAP family of proteins, demonstrated increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation in colorectal cancer cells. Our findings provide evidence that bazedoxifene treatment could be combined with SMAC-mimetics and chemotherapy to enhance tumour cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer, where gp130 receptor signalling promotes tumour growth and progression.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    RIPK3 cleavage is dispensable for necroptosis inhibition but restricts NLRP3 inflammasome activation
    Tran, HT ; Kratina, T ; Coutansais, A ; Michalek, D ; Hogan, BM ; Lawlor, KE ; Vince, JE ; Silke, J ; Lalaoui, N (SPRINGERNATURE, 2024-05)
    Caspase-8 activity is required to inhibit necroptosis during embryogenesis in mice. In vitro studies have suggested that caspase-8 directly cleaves RIPK1, CYLD and the key necroptotic effector kinase RIPK3 to repress necroptosis. However, recent studies have shown that mice expressing uncleavable RIPK1 die during embryogenesis due to excessive apoptosis, while uncleavable CYLD mice are viable. Therefore, these results raise important questions about the role of RIPK3 cleavage. To evaluate the physiological significance of RIPK3 cleavage, we generated Ripk3D333A/D333A mice harbouring a point mutation in the conserved caspase-8 cleavage site. These mice are viable, demonstrating that RIPK3 cleavage is not essential for blocking necroptosis during development. Furthermore, unlike RIPK1 cleavage-resistant cells, Ripk3D333A/D333A cells were not significantly more sensitive to necroptotic stimuli. Instead, we found that the cleavage of RIPK3 by caspase-8 restricts NLRP3 inflammasome activation-dependent pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion when Inhibitors of APoptosis (IAP) are limited. These results demonstrate that caspase-8 does not inhibit necroptosis by directly cleaving RIPK3 and further underscore a role for RIPK3 in regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Differential in vivo roles of Mpl cytoplasmic tyrosine residues in murine hematopoiesis and myeloproliferative disease
    Behrens, K ; Kauppi, M ; Viney, EM ; Kueh, AJ ; Hyland, CD ; Willson, TA ; Salleh, L ; de Graaf, CA ; Babon, JJ ; Herold, MJ ; Nicola, NA ; Alexander, WS (SPRINGERNATURE, 2024-06)
    Thrombopoietin (Tpo), which binds to its specific receptor, the Mpl protein, is the major cytokine regulator of megakaryopoiesis and circulating platelet number. Tpo binding to Mpl triggers activation of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) and phosphorylation of the receptor, as well as activation of several intracellular signalling cascades that mediate cellular responses. Three tyrosine (Y) residues in the C-terminal region of the Mpl intracellular domain have been implicated as sites of phosphorylation required for regulation of major Tpo-stimulated signalling pathways: Mpl-Y565, Mpl-Y599 and Mpl-Y604. Here, we have introduced mutations in the mouse germline and report a consistent physiological requirement for Mpl-Y599, mutation of which resulted in thrombocytopenia, deficient megakaryopoiesis, low hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) number and function, and attenuated responses to myelosuppression. We further show that in models of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), where Mpl is required for pathogenesis, thrombocytosis was dependent on intact Mpl-Y599. In contrast, Mpl-Y565 was required for negative regulation of Tpo responses; mutation of this residue resulted in excess megakaryopoiesis at steady-state and in response to myelosuppression, and exacerbated thrombocytosis associated with MPN.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Venetoclax, alone and in combination with the BH3 mimetic S63845, depletes HIV-1 latently infected cells and delays rebound in humanized mice
    Arandjelovic, P ; Kim, Y ; Cooney, JP ; Preston, SP ; Doerflinger, M ; Mcmahon, JH ; Garner, SE ; Zerbato, JM ; Roche, M ; Tumpach, C ; Ong, J ; Sheerin, D ; Smyth, GK ; Anderson, JL ; Allison, CC ; Lewin, SR ; Pellegrini, M (CELL PRESS, 2023-09-19)
    HIV-1 persists indefinitely in people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART). If ART is stopped, the virus rapidly rebounds from long-lived latently infected cells. Using a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection and CD4+ T cells from PLWH on ART, we investigate whether antagonizing host pro-survival proteins can prime latent cells to die and facilitate HIV-1 clearance. Venetoclax, a pro-apoptotic inhibitor of Bcl-2, depletes total and intact HIV-1 DNA in CD4+ T cells from PLWH ex vivo. This venetoclax-sensitive population is enriched for cells with transcriptionally higher levels of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins. Furthermore, venetoclax delays viral rebound in a mouse model of persistent HIV-1 infection, and the combination of venetoclax with the Mcl-1 inhibitor S63845 achieves a longer delay in rebound compared with either intervention alone. Thus, selective inhibition of pro-survival proteins can induce death of HIV-1-infected cells that persist on ART, extending time to viral rebound.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The transcription factor SpiB regulates the fibroblastic reticular cell network and CD8+ T-cell responses in lymph nodes
    Horsnell, HL ; Cao, WHJ ; Belz, GT ; Mueller, SN ; Alexandre, YO (WILEY, 2024-04)
    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) construct microanatomical niches that support lymph node (LN) homeostasis and coordination of immune responses. Transcription factors regulating the functionality of FRCs remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the transcription factor SpiB that is expressed in LN FRCs. Conditional ablation of SpiB in FRCs impaired the FRC network in the T-cell zone of LNs, leading to reduced numbers of FRCs and altered homeostatic functions including reduced CCL21 and interleukin-7 expression. The size and cellularity of LNs remained intact in the absence of SpiB but the space between the reticular network increased, indicating that although FRCs were reduced in number they stretched to maintain network integrity. Following virus infection, antiviral CD8+ T-cell responses were impaired, suggesting a role for SpiB expression in FRCs in orchestrating immune responses. Together, our findings reveal a new role for SpiB as an important regulator of FRC functions and immunity in LNs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Association of the CHEK2 c.1100delC variant, radiotherapy, and systemic treatment with contralateral breast cancer risk and breast cancer-specific survival
    Morra, A ; Schreurs, MAC ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Augustinsson, A ; Beckmann, MW ; Behrens, S ; Bojesen, SE ; Bolla, MK ; Brauch, H ; Broeks, A ; Buys, SS ; Camp, NJ ; Castelao, JE ; Cessna, MH ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chung, WK ; Colonna, S ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; Dennis, J ; Devilee, P ; Doerk, T ; Dunning, AM ; Dwek, M ; Easton, DF ; Eccles, DM ; Eriksson, M ; Evans, DG ; Fasching, PA ; Fehm, TN ; Figueroa, JD ; Flyger, H ; Gabrielson, M ; Gago-Dominguez, M ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Genkinger, JA ; Grassmann, F ; Guendert, M ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, C ; Hamann, U ; Harrington, PA ; Hartikainen, JM ; Hoppe, R ; Hopper, JL ; Houlston, RS ; Howell, A ; Jakubowska, A ; Janni, W ; Jernstroem, H ; John, EM ; Johnson, N ; Jones, ME ; Kristensen, VN ; Kurian, AW ; Lambrechts, D ; Le Marchand, L ; Lindblom, A ; Lubinski, J ; Lux, MP ; Mannermaa, A ; Mavroudis, D ; Mulligan, AM ; Muranen, TA ; Nevanlinna, H ; Nevelsteen, I ; Neven, P ; Newman, WG ; Obi, N ; Offit, K ; Olshan, AF ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Patel, A ; Peterlongo, P ; Phillips, K-A ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Polley, EC ; Presneau, N ; Pylkas, K ; Rack, B ; Radice, P ; Rashid, MU ; Rhenius, V ; Robson, M ; Romero, A ; Saloustros, E ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmutzler, RK ; Schuetze, S ; Scott, C ; Shah, MT ; Smichkoska, S ; Southey, MC ; Tapper, WJ ; Teras, LR ; Tollenaar, RAEM ; Tomczyk, K ; Tomlinson, I ; Troester, M ; Vachon, C ; van Veen, E ; Wang, Q ; Wendt, C ; Wildiers, H ; Winqvist, RA ; Ziogas, A ; Hall, P ; Pharoah, PDP ; Adank, M ; Hollestelle, A ; Schmidt, MK ; Hooning, MJ (WILEY, 2023-08)
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) patients with a germline CHEK2 c.1100delC variant have an increased risk of contralateral BC (CBC) and worse BC-specific survival (BCSS) compared to non-carriers. AIM: To assessed the associations of CHEK2 c.1100delC, radiotherapy, and systemic treatment with CBC risk and BCSS. METHODS: Analyses were based on 82,701 women diagnosed with a first primary invasive BC including 963 CHEK2 c.1100delC carriers; median follow-up was 9.1 years. Differential associations with treatment by CHEK2 c.1100delC status were tested by including interaction terms in a multivariable Cox regression model. A multi-state model was used for further insight into the relation between CHEK2 c.1100delC status, treatment, CBC risk and death. RESULTS: There was no evidence for differential associations of therapy with CBC risk by CHEK2 c.1100delC status. The strongest association with reduced CBC risk was observed for the combination of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy [HR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.55-0.78)]. No association was observed with radiotherapy. Results from the multi-state model showed shorter BCSS for CHEK2 c.1100delC carriers versus non-carriers also after accounting for CBC occurrence [HR (95% CI): 1.30 (1.09-1.56)]. CONCLUSION: Systemic therapy was associated with reduced CBC risk irrespective of CHEK2 c.1100delC status. Moreover, CHEK2 c.1100delC carriers had shorter BCSS, which appears not to be fully explained by their CBC risk.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The BALB/c.mdx62 mouse exhibits a dystrophic muscle pathology and is a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    Swiderski, K ; Chan, AS ; Herold, MJ ; Kueh, AJ ; Chung, JD ; Hardee, JP ; Trieu, J ; Chee, A ; Naim, T ; Gregorevic, P ; Lynch, GS (COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD, 2024-04)
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating monogenic skeletal muscle-wasting disorder. Although many pharmacological and genetic interventions have been reported in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials with meaningful benefit. Identifying therapeutic potential can be limited by availability of suitable preclinical mouse models. More rigorous testing across models with varied background strains and mutations can identify treatments for clinical success. Here, we report the generation of a DMD mouse model with a CRISPR-induced deletion within exon 62 of the dystrophin gene (Dmd) and the first generated in BALB/c mice. Analysis of mice at 3, 6 and 12 months of age confirmed loss of expression of the dystrophin protein isoform Dp427 and resultant dystrophic pathology in limb muscles and the diaphragm, with evidence of centrally nucleated fibers, increased inflammatory markers and fibrosis, progressive decline in muscle function, and compromised trabecular bone development. The BALB/c.mdx62 mouse is a novel model of DMD with associated variations in the immune response and muscle phenotype, compared with those of existing models. It represents an important addition to the preclinical model toolbox for developing therapeutic strategies.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Library size confounds biology in spatial transcriptomics data.
    Bhuva, DD ; Tan, CW ; Salim, A ; Marceaux, C ; Pickering, MA ; Chen, J ; Kharbanda, M ; Jin, X ; Liu, N ; Feher, K ; Putri, G ; Tilley, WD ; Hickey, TE ; Asselin-Labat, M-L ; Phipson, B ; Davis, MJ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-04-18)
    Spatial molecular data has transformed the study of disease microenvironments, though, larger datasets pose an analytics challenge prompting the direct adoption of single-cell RNA-sequencing tools including normalization methods. Here, we demonstrate that library size is associated with tissue structure and that normalizing these effects out using commonly applied scRNA-seq normalization methods will negatively affect spatial domain identification. Spatial data should not be specifically corrected for library size prior to analysis, and algorithms designed for scRNA-seq data should be adopted with caution.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    TP53 status and impact on AML prognosis within the ELN 2022 risk classification
    Fleming, S ; Tsai, XC-H ; Morris, R ; Hou, H-A ; Wei, AH (AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY, 2023-12-07)
    This study reports the following: (1) frequency of TP53 comutation within each component of the European LeukemiaNet 2022 acute myeloid leukemia risk classification, (2) relevance of TP53 mutated variant allelic fraction <10%, (3) prognostic impact of -7, -5/del(5q), -17/abn(17p), complex karyotype/monosomal karyotype, or myelodysplasia-related gene mutations with/without mutated TP53.