Medical Biology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Glucagonoma Masquerading as a Mucinous Cancer of the Ovary: Lessons from Cell Biology
    Ho, GY ; Ananda, S ; Vandenberg, CJ ; McNally, O ; Tie, J ; Gorringe, K ; Bowtell, D ; Pyman, J ; Wakefield, MJ ; Scott, CL ; Ho, GY ; Frentzas, S (IntechOpen, 2020-06-17)
    High-grade mucinous ovarian cancer (HGMOC) is often a misnomer as the majority of cases are metastatic disease with a gastro-intestinal origin. The standard platinum-based ovarian cancer (OC) chemotherapy regimens are often ineffective, and there are insufficient data to support the use of colorectal cancer (CRC) chemotherapy regimens due to the rarity of HGMOC. We described a cohort of four consecutive suspected HGMOC cases treated at the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne in 2012. Two cases were treated as primary MOC, whereas the other two were considered to be metastatic CRC based on histopathological and clinical evidence. From the RNAseq analysis, we identified two cases of HGMOC whose gene expression profiles were consistent with mucinous epithelial OC, one case that was treated as metastatic CRC with gene expression profile correlated with CRC and one case with neuroendocrine (NET) gene expression features. Interestingly, glucagon was over-expressed in this tumor that was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These findings suggest a rare glucagonoma-like NET appendiceal tumor that had metastasized to the surface of ovary and were unresponsive to CRC chemotherapy regimens. In summary, a carefully curated panel of expression markers and selected functional genomics could provide diagnosis and treatment guidance for patients with possible HGMOC.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Recent advances in functional research in Giardia intestinalis
    Jex, AR ; Svard, S ; Hagen, KD ; Starcevich, H ; Emery-Corbin, SJ ; Balan, B ; Nosala, C ; Dawson, SC ; OrtegaPierres, MG (ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 2020-01-01)
    This review considers current advances in tools to investigate the functional biology of Giardia, it's coding and non-coding genes, features and cellular and molecular biology. We consider major gaps in current knowledge of the parasite and discuss the present state-of-the-art in its in vivo and in vitro cultivation. Advances in in silico tools, including for the modelling non-coding RNAs and genomic elements, as well as detailed exploration of coding genes through inferred homology to model organisms, have provided significant, primary level insight. Improved methods to model the three-dimensional structure of proteins offer new insights into their function, and binding interactions with ligands, other proteins or precursor drugs, and offer substantial opportunities to prioritise proteins for further study and experimentation. These approaches can be supplemented by the growing and highly accessible arsenal of systems-based methods now being applied to Giardia, led by genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic methods, but rapidly incorporating advanced tools for detection of real-time transcription, evaluation of chromatin states and direct measurement of macromolecular complexes. Methods to directly interrogate and perturb gene function have made major leaps in recent years, with CRISPr-interference now available. These approaches, coupled with protein over-expression, fluorescent labelling and in vitro and in vivo imaging, are set to revolutionize the field and herald an exciting time during which the field may finally realise Giardia's long proposed potential as a model parasite and eukaryote.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Toward Targeting Antiapoptotic MCL-1 for Cancer Therapy
    Kelly, GL ; Strasser, A ; Jacks, T ; Sawyers, CL (ANNUAL REVIEWS, 2020-01-01)
    Apoptosis is critical for embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and the removal of infected or otherwise dangerous cells. It is controlled by three subgroups of the BCL-2 protein family—the BH3-only proteins that initiate cell death; the effectors of cell killing, BAX and BAK; and the antiapoptotic guardians, including MCL-1 and BCL-2. Defects in apoptosis can promote tumorigenesis and render malignant cells refractory to anticancer therapeutics. Activation of cell death by inhibiting antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members has emerged as an attractive strategy for cancer therapy, with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax leading the way. Large-scale cancer genome analyses have revealed frequent amplification of the locus encoding antiapoptotic MCL-1 in human cancers, and functional studies have shown that MCL-1 is essential for the sustained survival and expansion of many types of tumor cells. Structural analysis and medicinal chemistry have led to the development of three distinct small-molecule inhibitors of MCL-1 that are currently undergoing clinical testing.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Reconstruction of protein-protein interaction pathways by mining subject-verb-objects intermediates
    Ling, MHT ; Lefevre, C ; Nicholas, KR ; Lin, F ; Rajapakse, JC ; Schmidt, B ; Volkert, G (SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 2007-01-01)