Medical Biology - Research Publications

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    Transplantable programmed death ligand 1 expressing gastroids from gastric cancer prone Nfkb1(-/-) mice
    Low, JT ; Ho, G-Y ; Scott, M ; Tan, CW ; Whitehead, L ; Barber, K ; Yip, HYK ; Dekkers, JF ; Hirokawa, Y ; Silke, J ; Burgess, AW ; Strasser, A ; Putoczki, TL ; O'Reilly, LA (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-11-17)
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    CARD11 is dispensable for homeostatic responses and suppressive activity of peripherally induced FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells
    Polichen, A ; Horikawa, K ; Milla, L ; Kofler, J ; Bouillet, P ; Belz, GT ; O'Reilly, LA ; Goodnow, CC ; Strasser, A ; Gray, DHD (WILEY, 2019-09-01)
    FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis. Despite a great deal of interest in modulating their number and function for the treatment of autoimmune disease or cancer, the precise mechanisms that control the homeostasis of Treg cells remain unclear. We report a new ENU-induced mutant mouse, lack of costimulation (loco), with atopic dermatitis and Treg cell deficiency typical of Card11 loss-of-function mutants. Three distinct single nucleotide variants were found in the Card11 introns 2, 10 and 20 that cause the loss of CARD11 expression in these mutant mice. These mutations caused the loss of thymic-derived, Neuropilin-1+ (NRP1+ ) Treg cells in neonatal and adult loco mice; however, residual peripherally induced NRP1- Treg cells remained. These peripherally generated Treg cells could be expanded in vivo by the administration of IL-2:anti-IL-2 complexes, indicating that this key homeostatic signaling axis remained intact in CARD11-deficient Treg cells. Furthermore, these expanded Treg cells could mediate near-normal suppression of activated, conventional CD4+ T cells, suggesting that CARD11 is dispensable for Treg cell function. In addition to shedding light on the requirements for CARD11 in Treg cell homeostasis and function, these data reveal novel noncoding Card11 loss-of-function mutations that impair the expression of this critical immune-regulatory protein.
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    A type III effector antagonizes death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection
    Pearson, JS ; Giogha, C ; Ong, SY ; Kennedy, CL ; Kelly, M ; Robinson, KS ; Lung, TWF ; Mansell, A ; Riedmaier, P ; Oates, CVL ; Zaid, A ; Muehlen, S ; Crepin, VF ; Marches, O ; Ang, C-S ; Williamson, NA ; O'Reilly, LA ; Bankovacki, A ; Nachbur, U ; Infusini, G ; Webb, AI ; Silke, J ; Strasser, A ; Frankel, G ; Hartland, EL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013-09-12)
    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) Escherichia coli use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonization and interfere with antimicrobial host responses. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death-domain-containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death-receptor-induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-acetylglucosamine transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg 117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing pathogens antagonize death-receptor-induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response.
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    Loss of the BH3-only protein Bmf impairs B cell homeostasis and accelerates gamma irradiation-induced thymic lymphoma development
    Labi, V ; Erlacher, M ; Kiessling, S ; Manzl, C ; Frenzel, A ; O'Reilly, L ; Strasser, A ; Villunger, A (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2008-03-17)
    Members of the Bcl-2 protein family play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating apoptosis in response to developmental cues or exogenous stress. Proapoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family are essential for initiation of cell death, and they function by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and/or Bak, either directly or indirectly through binding to prosurvival Bcl-2 family members. Bax and Bak then elicit the downstream events in apoptosis signaling. Mammals have at least eight BH3-only proteins and they are activated in a stimulus-specific, as well as a cell type-specific, manner. We have generated mice lacking the BH3-only protein Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf) to investigate its role in cell death signaling. Our studies reveal that Bmf is dispensable for embryonic development and certain forms of stress-induced apoptosis, including loss of cell attachment (anoikis) or UV irradiation. Remarkably, loss of Bmf protected lymphocytes against apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids or histone deacetylase inhibition. Moreover, bmf(-/-) mice develop a B cell-restricted lymphadenopathy caused by the abnormal resistance of these cells to a range of apoptotic stimuli. Finally, Bmf-deficiency accelerated the development of gamma irradiation-induced thymic lymphomas. Our results demonstrate that Bmf plays a critical role in apoptosis signaling and can function as a tumor suppressor.
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    Destruction of tumor vasculature and abated tumor growth upon VEGF blockade is driven by proapoptotic protein Bim in endothelial cells
    Naik, E ; O'Reilly, LA ; Asselin-Labat, M-L ; Merino, D ; Lin, A ; Cook, M ; Coultas, L ; Bouillet, P ; Adams, JM ; Strasser, A (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2011-07-04)
    For malignant growth, solid cancers must stimulate the formation of new blood vessels by producing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), which is required for the survival of tumor-associated vessels. Novel anticancer agents that block VEGF-A signaling trigger endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and vascular regression preferentially within tumors, but how the ECs die is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that VEGF-A deprivation, provoked either by drug-induced tumor shrinkage or direct VEGF-A blockade, up-regulates the proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 family member Bim in ECs. Importantly, the tumor growth inhibitory activity of a VEGF-A antagonist required Bim-induced apoptosis of ECs. These findings thus reveal the mechanism by which VEGF-A blockade induces EC apoptosis and impairs tumor growth. They also indicate that drugs mimicking BH3-only proteins may be exploited to kill tumor cells not only directly but also indirectly by ablating the tumor vasculature.
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    Type I Interferon Drives Dendritic Cell Apoptosis via Multiple BH3-Only Proteins following Activation by PolyIC In Vivo
    Marraco, SAF ; Scott, CL ; Bouillet, P ; Ives, A ; Masina, S ; Vremec, D ; Jansen, ES ; O'Reilly, LA ; Schneider, P ; Fasel, N ; Shortman, K ; Strasser, A ; Acha-Orbea, H ; Rotzschke, O (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2011-06-02)
    BACKGROUND: DC are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and this is pivotal for the induction of adaptive immune responses. Thereafter, the clearance of activated DC is crucial to prevent immune pathology. While PAMPs are of major interest for vaccine science due to their adjuvant potential, it is unclear whether and how PAMPs may affect DC viability. We aimed to elucidate the possible apoptotic mechanisms that control activated DC lifespan in response to PAMPs, particularly in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyIC, synthetic analogue of dsRNA) induces dramatic apoptosis of mouse splenic conventional DC (cDC) in vivo, predominantly affecting the CD8α subset, as shown by flow cytometry-based analysis of splenic DC subsets. Importantly, while Bim deficiency conferred only minor protection, cDC depletion was prevented in mice lacking Bim plus one of three other BH3-only proteins, either Puma, Noxa or Bid. Furthermore, we show that Type I Interferon (IFN) is necessary and sufficient for DC death both in vitro and in vivo, and that TLR3 and MAVS co-operate in IFNß production in vivo to induce DC death in response to PolyIC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that apoptosis restricts DC lifespan following activation by PolyIC, particularly affecting the CD8α cDC subset. Such DC apoptosis is mediated by the overlapping action of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, including but not solely involving Bim, and is driven by Type I IFN. While Type I IFNs are important anti-viral factors, CD8α cDC are major cross-presenting cells and critical inducers of CTL. We discuss such paradoxical finding on DC death with PolyIC/Type I IFN. These results could contribute to understand immunosuppression associated with chronic infection, and to the optimization of DC-based therapies and the clinical use of PAMPs and Type I IFNs.
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    Evidence against upstream regulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by pro-apoptotic BIM and PUMA
    Herold, MJ ; O'Reilly, LA ; Lin, A ; Srivastava, R ; Doerflinger, M ; Bouillet, P ; Strasser, A ; Puthalakath, H (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-07-01)
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    Characterisation of a novel A1-specific monoclonal antibody
    Lang, MJ ; Brennan, MS ; O'Reilly, LA ; Ottina, E ; Czabotar, PE ; Whitlock, E ; Fairlie, WD ; Tai, L ; Strasser, A ; Herold, MJ (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-12-01)
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    Fas ligand, Bcl-2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase: Regulators of distinct cell death and survival pathways in granulocytes
    Villunger, A ; O'Reilly, LA ; Holler, N ; Adams, J ; Strasser, A (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2000-09-04)
    The short life span of granulocytes, which limits many inflammatory responses, is thought to be influenced by the Bcl-2 protein family, death receptors such as CD95 (Fas/APO-1), stress-activated protein kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and proinflammatory cytokines like granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). To clarify the roles of these various regulators in granulocyte survival, we have investigated the spontaneous apoptosis of granulocytes in culture and that induced by Fas ligand or chemotherapeutic drugs, using cells from normal, CD95-deficient lpr, or vav-bcl-2 transgenic mice. CD95-induced apoptosis, which required receptor aggregation by recombinant Fas ligand or the membrane-bound ligand, was unaffected by G-CSF treatment or Bcl-2 overexpression. Conversely, spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis occurred normally in lpr granulocytes but were suppressed by G-CSF treatment or Bcl-2 overexpression. Although activation of p38 MAPK has been implicated in granulocyte death, their apoptosis actually was markedly accelerated by specific inhibitors of this kinase. These results suggest that G-CSF promotes granulocyte survival largely through the Bcl-2-controlled pathway, whereas CD95 regulates a distinct pathway to apoptosis that is not required for either their spontaneous or drug-induced death. Moreover, p38 MAPK signaling contributes to granulocyte survival rather than their apoptosis.
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    B lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cells
    Grumont, RJ ; Rourke, IJ ; O'Reilly, LA ; Strasser, A ; Miyake, K ; Sha, W ; Gerondakis, S (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1998-03-02)
    Rel and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB1, two members of the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor family, are essential for mitogen-induced B cell proliferation. Using mice with inactivated Rel or NF-kappaB1 genes, we show that these transcription factors differentially regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in B lymphocytes. Consistent with an increased rate of mature B cell turnover in naive nfkb1-/- mice, the level of apoptosis in cultures of quiescent nfkb1-/-, but not c-rel-/-, B cells is higher. The failure of c-rel-/- or nfkb1-/- B cells to proliferate in response to particular mitogens coincides with a cell cycle block early in G1 and elevated cell death. Expression of a bcl-2 transgene prevents apoptosis in resting and activated c-rel-/- and nfkb1-/- B cells, but does not overcome the block in cell cycle progression, suggesting that the impaired proliferation is not simply a consequence of apoptosis and that Rel/NF-kappaB proteins regulate cell survival and cell cycle control through independent mechanisms. In contrast to certain B lymphoma cell lines in which mitogen-induced cell death can result from Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent downregulation of c-myc, expression of c-myc is normal in resting and stimulated c-rel-/- B cells, indicating that target gene(s) regulated by Rel that are important for preventing apoptosis may differ in normal and immortalized B cells. Collectively, these results are the first to demonstrate that in normal B cells, NF-kappaB1 regulates survival of cells in G0, whereas mitogenic activation induced by distinct stimuli requires different Rel/NF-kappaB factors to control cell cycle progression and prevent apoptosis.