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ItemB lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cellsGrumont, RJ ; Rourke, IJ ; O'Reilly, LA ; Strasser, A ; Miyake, K ; Sha, W ; Gerondakis, S (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1998-03-02)Rel and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB1, two members of the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor family, are essential for mitogen-induced B cell proliferation. Using mice with inactivated Rel or NF-kappaB1 genes, we show that these transcription factors differentially regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in B lymphocytes. Consistent with an increased rate of mature B cell turnover in naive nfkb1-/- mice, the level of apoptosis in cultures of quiescent nfkb1-/-, but not c-rel-/-, B cells is higher. The failure of c-rel-/- or nfkb1-/- B cells to proliferate in response to particular mitogens coincides with a cell cycle block early in G1 and elevated cell death. Expression of a bcl-2 transgene prevents apoptosis in resting and activated c-rel-/- and nfkb1-/- B cells, but does not overcome the block in cell cycle progression, suggesting that the impaired proliferation is not simply a consequence of apoptosis and that Rel/NF-kappaB proteins regulate cell survival and cell cycle control through independent mechanisms. In contrast to certain B lymphoma cell lines in which mitogen-induced cell death can result from Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent downregulation of c-myc, expression of c-myc is normal in resting and stimulated c-rel-/- B cells, indicating that target gene(s) regulated by Rel that are important for preventing apoptosis may differ in normal and immortalized B cells. Collectively, these results are the first to demonstrate that in normal B cells, NF-kappaB1 regulates survival of cells in G0, whereas mitogenic activation induced by distinct stimuli requires different Rel/NF-kappaB factors to control cell cycle progression and prevent apoptosis.
ItemMULTIPLE REARRANGEMENTS IN T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA-CHAIN GENES MAXIMIZE THE PRODUCTION OF USEFUL THYMOCYTESPETRIE, HT ; LIVAK, F ; SCHATZ, DG ; STRASSER, A ; CRISPE, IN ; SHORTMAN, K (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1993-08-01)Peripheral T lymphocytes each express surface T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains of a single specificity. These are produced after random somatic rearrangements in TCR alpha and beta germline genes. Published model systems using mice expressing TCR alpha and/or beta chain transgenes have shown that allelic exclusion occurs conventionally for TCR-beta. TCR alpha chain expression, however, appears to be less strictly regulated, as endogenous TCR alpha chains are often found in association with transgenic TCR beta chains in TCR alpha/beta transgenic mice. This finding, coupled with the unique structure of the TCR alpha locus, has led to the suggestion that unlike TCR beta and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, TCR alpha genes may make multiple rearrangements on each chromosome. In the current study, we demonstrate that the majority of TCR-, noncycling thymocytes spontaneously acquire surface expression of CD3/TCR. Further, we show that cultured immature thymocytes originally expressing specific TCR alpha and beta chains may lose surface expression of the original TCR alpha, but not beta chains. These data provide evidence that not only must multiple rearrangements occur, but that TCR alpha gene rearrangement continues even after surface expression of a TCR alpha/beta heterodimer, apparently until the recombination process is halted by positive selection, or the cell dies. Sequential rearrangement of TCR alpha chain genes facilitates enhanced production of useful thymocytes, by increasing the frequency of production of both in-frame rearrangements and positively selectable TCR alpha/beta heterodimers.
ItemEnforced Bcl-2 expression inhibits antigen-mediated clonal elimination of peripheral B cells in an antigen dose-dependent manner and promotes receptor editing in autoreactive, immature B cellsLang, J ; Arnold, B ; Hammerling, G ; Harris, AW ; Korsmeyer, S ; Russell, D ; Strasser, A ; Nemazee, D (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1997-11-03)The mechanisms that establish immune tolerance in immature and mature B cells appear to be distinct. Membrane-bound autoantigen is thought to induce developmental arrest and receptor editing in immature B cells, whereas mature B cells have shortened lifespans when exposed to the same stimulus. In this study, we used Emu-bcl-2-22 transgenic (Tg) mice to test the prediction that enforced expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic inhibitor in B cells would rescue mature, but not immature, B cells from tolerance induction. To monitor tolerance to the natural membrane autoantigen H-2Kb, we bred 3-83mudelta (anti-Kk,b) Ig Tg mice to H-2(b) mice or to mice expressing transgene-driven Kb in the periphery. In 3-83mudelta/bcl-2 Tg mice, deletion of autoreactive B cells induced by peripheral Kb antigen expression in the liver (MT-Kb Tg) or epithelia (KerIV-Kb Tg), was partly or completely inhibited, respectively. Furthermore, Bcl-2 protected peritoneal B-2 B cells from deletion mediated by acute antigen exposure, but this protection could be overcome by higher antigen dose. In contrast to its ability to block peripheral self-tolerance, Bcl-2 overexpression failed to inhibit central tolerance induced by bone marrow antigen expression, but instead, enhanced the receptor editing process. These studies indicate that apoptosis plays distinct roles in central and peripheral B cell tolerance.
ItemIMMATURE SURFACE IG+ B-CELLS CAN CONTINUE TO REARRANGE KAPPA-L-CHAIN AND LAMBDA-L-CHAIN GENE LOCIROLINK, A ; GRAWUNDER, U ; HAASNER, D ; STRASSER, A ; MELCHERS, F (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1993-10-01)Pro and pre B cells possess the long-term capacity to proliferate in vitro on stromal cells and interleukin 7 (IL-7) and can differentiate to surface immunoglobulin (sIg+) cells upon removal of IL-7 from the cultures. A key event in this differentiation is the extensive cell loss due to apoptosis. Because the proto-oncogene bcl-2 can promote cell survival, we established pre-B cell lines from E mu-bcl-2 transgenic mice. These pre-B cells have the same properties as those derived from non-bcl-2 transgenic mice except that they do not die by apoptosis. This allowed us to study the fate of newly formed B cells in vitro for a longer period of time. Here we show that early during the differentiation of pre-B cells, upregulation of RAG-1 and RAG-2 expression go hand in hand with rearrangements of the Ig gene loci. Moreover, the newly formed sIg+ B cells continue to express RAG-1 and RAG-2 and continue to rearrange L chain gene loci, even in the absence of proliferation, in an orderly fashion, so that kappa L+ sIg+ cells can become lambda L+ sIg+ or sIg- cells, whereas lambda L+ sIg+ cells can become sIg-, but not kappa L+ sIg+ cells. Thus, deposition of a complete Ig molecule on the surface of a B cell does not automatically stop the Ig-rearrangement machinery.