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    Secretion of a malarial histidine-rich protein (Pf HRP II) from Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.
    Howard, RJ ; Uni, S ; Aikawa, M ; Aley, SB ; Leech, JH ; Lew, AM ; Wellems, TE ; Rener, J ; Taylor, DW (Rockefeller University Press, 1986-10)
    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IRBCs) synthesize several histidine-rich proteins (HRPs) that accumulate high levels of [3H]histidine but very low levels of amino acids such as [3H]isoleucine or [35S]methionine. We prepared a monoclonal antibody which reacts specifically with one of these HRPs (Pf HRP II) and studied the location and synthesis of this protein during the parasite's intracellular growth. With the knob-positive Malayan Camp strain of P. falciparum, the monoclonal antibody identified a multiplet of protein bands with major species at Mr 72,000 and 69,000. Pf HRP II synthesis began with immature parasites (rings) and continued through the trophozoite stage. The Mr 72,000 band of Pf HRP II, but not the faster moving bands of the multiplet, was recovered as a water-soluble protein from the culture supernatant of intact IRBCs. Approximately 50% of the total [3H]histidine radioactivity incorporated into the Mr 72,000 band was extracellular between 2 and 24 h of culture. Immunofluorescence and cryothin-section immunoelectron microscopy localized Pf HRP II to several cell compartments including the parasite cytoplasm, as concentrated "packets" in the host erythrocyte cytoplasm and at the IRBC membrane. Our results provide evidence for an intracellular route of transport for a secreted malarial protein from the parasite through several membranes and the host cell cytoplasm.
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    THE E-MU-MYC TRANSGENIC MOUSE - A MODEL FOR HIGH-INCIDENCE SPONTANEOUS LYMPHOMA AND LEUKEMIA OF EARLY B-CELLS
    HARRIS, AW ; PINKERT, CA ; CRAWFORD, M ; LANGDON, WY ; BRINSTER, RL ; ADAMS, JM (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1988-02-01)
    Mice transgenic for a c-myc gene driven by the IgH enhancer (E mu-myc) were shown to almost invariably develop lymphomas, 90% succumbing in the first 5 mo of life. The tumors typically presented as rapidly progressive lymphadenopathy with thymic involvement and were highly malignant by transplantation assay. Morphologically, they were lymphoblastic lymphomas, usually accompanied by lymphoid leukemia and granulocytosis, and were distinct from the tumors that arose much later in 37% of nontransgenic mice of the same (C57BL/6 x SJL)F2 genetic background. Cell-surface markers on 31 E mu-myc tumors identified 52% as pre-B lymphomas, 29% as mixed pre-B and B lymphomas, and 19% as B lymphomas. The tumors appeared to arise at random from a population of pre-B cells expanded by constitutive expression of the myc transgene. A majority of the animals initiated malignancy at the rate of 17% per week. The rate at which the cycling, benign pre-B cells spontaneously convert to malignancy was estimated to about 10(-10) per cell per generation. A transient leukocytosis identified in young E mu-myc mice was developed into a rapid assay for inheritance of the transgene.
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    A SEARCH FOR MESSENGER-RNA MOLECULES BEARING IMMUNOGLOBULIN VH NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCES IN T-CELLS
    KEMP, DJ ; ADAMS, JM ; MOTTRAM, PL ; THOMAS, WR ; WALKER, ID ; MILLER, J (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1982-01-01)
    Expression of VH-coded mRNA molecules in T cells, antigen-specific T cell lines, or T cell hybridomas was not detected using four different VH DNA probes under conditions that permitted cross-hybridization between distantly related VH genes. In contrast, VH gene expression was readily detected in two B cell lymphomas and in splenic B cells. Less than one molecule per cell of RNA, exactly complementary to the DNA probes used, would have been detected in these T cell populations. The results thus seriously question the proposition that T cells use the B cell VH repertoire to code for antigen receptors.
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    ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN-BLOOD EOSINOPHIL CYTO-TOXICITY BY SEMIPURIFIED EOSINOPHIL COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR(S)
    DESSEIN, AJ ; VADAS, MA ; NICOLA, NA ; METCALF, D ; DAVID, JR (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1982-01-01)
    Purified human blood eosinophils, when incubated in human placental conditioned medium (a source of colony-stimulating factors) [CSF]) demonstrate an enhanced ability to damage antibody- or complement-coated schistosomula. This enhancement represents a 4- to 10-fold increase of eosinophil schistosomicidal ability and a 10-fold lowering of the threshold for antibody or complement required in the killing reaction. The activity that enhances eosinophil cytotoxicity and the eosinophil colony-stimulating activity in the placental conditioned medium are eluted in the same fraction (CSF-alpha) after chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and phenyl-Sepharose columns, suggesting that these two activities might be associated with the same molecule. CSF-alpha enhances the adherence step of the killing reaction: antibody-coated larvae were frequently found covered by several layers of eosinophils in tubes containing CSF-alpha. Such a degree of adherence was rarely seen in control tubes lacking CSF-alpha. This enhancement of the eosinophil adherence is detectable 45-60 min after addition of CSF-alpha to the culture. It is not affected by washing the cells after a short time of preincubation with CSF-alpha, and it occurs in the absence of protein synthesis, whereas colony-stimulating activity requires continuous protein synthesis and ceases when CSF is removed from the culture. Finally, CSF-alpha enhances the temperature-dependent reaction that insures the irreversibility of eosinophil attachment to schistosomula. These observations suggest that eosinopoietic factors could be responsible for some of the modified properties of blood eosinophils in eosinophilic individuals.
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    ONE SYNCHRONOUS WAVE OF B-CELL DEVELOPMENT IN MOUSE FETAL LIVER CHANGES AT DAY 16 OF GESTATION FROM DEPENDENCE TO INDEPENDENCE OF A STROMAL CELL ENVIRONMENT
    STRASSER, A ; ROLINK, A ; MELCHERS, F (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1989-12-01)
    Precursor cells of the B lineage can be enriched from mouse fetal liver by FACS with the aid of the pre-B cell-specific mAb G-5-2. The cells are concomitantly enriched for cells expressing the pre-B cell-specific gene lambda 5, and for cells developing to LPS-reactive mature B cells. The enriched purified precursors are not influenced by rIL-2 through -7, alone or in combination, to develop to mitogen-reactive, sIg+ cells. Marginal proliferation of the precursors is observed in response to IL-3 plus -4, and IL-6 plus -7, and this does not change in the presence of stromal cells. Development to mitogen-reactive, sIg+ cells is dependent on interactions with embryonic stromal cells from fetal liver. Two mAbs raised against the stromal cells inhibit this development. Two phases of precursor cell development can be distinguished in fetal liver. Between days 13 and 15 of gestation, it is dependent on stromal cell interactions, thereafter, from days 16 to 19, it is independent. A sudden increase in the number of mitogen-reactive, sIg+ B lineage cells occurs within 24 h between days 16 and 17. All these results indicate that B cell development occurs in one wave with synchronous steps of changes from a mitogen-insensitive, sIg-, stromal cell dependent to a mitogen-reactive, sIg+, stromal cell-independent B lineage line.
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    TLiSA1, a human T lineage-specific activation antigen involved in the differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and anomalous killer cells from their precursors.
    Burns, GF ; Triglia, T ; Werkmeister, JA ; Begley, CG ; Boyd, AW (Rockefeller University Press, 1985-05-01)
    The characteristics of a novel T lineage-specific activation antigen, termed TLiSA1, are described. The antigen was detected with a mouse monoclonal antibody, LeoA1, that was raised against activated human T cells generated in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). The antigen became strongly expressed on T cells 48-72 h after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, and retained expression on MLC-activated T cells after 10 d of culture. The antigen was absent from a range of human T, B, myeloid, fibroblast, and tumour cell lines, but was present on the surface of the interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent gibbon cell line MLA-144. Analysis of the antigen by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immunoprecipitates obtained from activated human T cells demonstrated a broad band in the region of 70 kD, whereas precipitates obtained from MLA-144 revealed a single narrow band of 95 kD. The molecule was expressed with a maximum density of 66,000 copies per cell on the surface of MLC-activated T cell blasts, as assessed by Scatchard analysis. TLiSA1 was distinguished from the IL-2 receptor bound by the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody by demonstrating that the antigens did not comodulate or coprecipitate, and by constructing an IL-2-independent human T X T hybrid that expressed the TLiSA1 but not the Tac antigen. MLC with B lymphoblasts was used to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for the stimulating cell, and anomalous killer (AK) cells able to kill melanoma target cells. The presence of LeoA1 or F(ab')2 fragments of the antibody from the beginning of coculture did not affect proliferation in these cultures, but did inhibit the induction of both CTL and AK cells from their precursors. This inhibition of differentiation by LeoA1 was confirmed under conditions of limiting dilution, where it was shown that the antibody reduced the frequency of CTL produced, and greatly (fourfold) reduced the frequency of AK cells generated from their precursors. We discuss the possibility that human CTL may express a differentiation factor receptor that is distinct from the receptor for IL-2.