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    Thymic dendritic cell precursors: relationship to the T lymphocyte lineage and phenotype of the dendritic cell progeny.
    Wu, L ; Li, CL ; Shortman, K (Rockefeller University Press, 1996-09-01)
    Successive T-precursors isolated from adult mouse thymus were examined for their developmental potential, by transfer to irradiated Ly 5-disparate recipients. The earliest, "low CD4" precursors formed T, B, and dendritic cells (DC), but not myeloid cells, in accordance with earlier studies. Surprisingly, the next downstream CD4-8-3 44+25+ precursor population still formed DC as well as T cells although it no longer formed B or myeloid cells. Further down-stream, the CD4-8 3-44-25+ population formed only T cells. The thymic and splenic DC progeny of the early thymic precursors all expressed high levels of CD8 alpha, in contrast with normal splenic DC and the splenic DC progeny of bone marrow stem cells, which consisted of both CD8 and CD8+ DC. A common precursor of T cells and of a subclass of DC is proposed, with CD8 alpha as a marker of the lymphoid-related DC lineage.
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    Dendritic cell development in culture from thymic precursor cells in the absence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
    Saunders, D ; Lucas, K ; Ismaili, J ; Wu, L ; Maraskovsky, E ; Dunn, A ; Shortman, K (Rockefeller University Press, 1996-12-01)
    The earliest lymphoid precursor population in the adult mouse thymus had previously been shown to produce not only T cells, but also dendritic cell (DC) progeny on transfer to irradiated recipients. In this study, culture of these isolated thymic precursors with a mixture of cytokines induced them to proliferate and to differentiate to DC, but not to T lineage cells. At least 70% of the individual precursors had the capacity to form DC. The resultant DC were as effective as normal thymic DC in the functional test of T cell stimulation in mixed leukocyte cultures. The cultured DC also expressed high levels of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex, together with CD11c, DEC-205, CD80, and CD86, markers characteristic of mature DC in general. However, they did not express CD8 alpha or BP-1, markers characteristic of normal thymic DC. The optimized mixture of five to seven cytokines required for DC development from these thymic precursors did not include granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), usually required for DC development in culture. The addition of anti-GM-CSF antibody or the use of precursors from GM-CSF-deficient mice did not prevent DC development. Addition of GM-CSF was without effect on DC yield when interleukin (IL) 3 and IL-7 were present, although some stimulation by GM-CSF was noted in their absence. In contrast, DC development was enhanced by addition of the Flt3/Flk2 ligand, in line with the effects of the administration of this cytokine in vivo. The results indicate that the development of a particular lineage of DC, probably those of lymphoid precursor origin, may be independent of the myeloid hormone GM-CSF.
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    Mouse hepatitis virus A59-induced demyelination can occur in the absence of CD8+ T cells.
    Gombold, JL ; Sutherland, RM ; Lavi, E ; Paterson, Y ; Weiss, SR (Elsevier BV, 1995-03)
    Mouse hepatitis virus causes a chronic demyelinating disease in C57BL/6 mice. While early studies suggested demyelination is due to direct cytolytic effects of virus on oligodendrocytes, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of the immune system in the mechanism of demyelination. In this study we have asked whether demyelination can occur in the absence of functional MHC class I expression and CD8+ T cells. We infected transgenic mice lacking expression of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2 M -/- mice) with MHV-A59. In beta 2M-/- mice, virus was much more lethal than in either of the parental strains used to produce the mice; furthermore, while clearance from the CNS did occur in beta 2M-/- mice, it was slower than in C57BL/6 mice. This is consistent with the importance of CD8+ cells in viral clearance. Because of the increased sensitivity of the beta 2M-/- mice to infection, only low levels of virus could be used to evaluate chronic disease. Even at these low levels, demyelination did occur in some animals. To compare infection in beta 2M-/- and C57BL/6 mice we used a higher dose of an attenuated variant of MHV-A59, C12. The attenuated variant induced less demyelination in C57BL/6 mice compared to wild type A59, but the levels observed were not significantly different from those seen in beta 2M-/- mice. Thus, MHV-induced demyelination can occur in some animals in the absence of MHC class I and CD8+ cells.
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    RAPID UP-REGULATION OF MDR1 EXPRESSION BY ANTHRACYCLINES IN A CLASSICAL MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT CELL-LINE
    HU, XF ; SLATER, A ; WALL, DM ; KANTHARIDIS, P ; PARKIN, JD ; COWMAN, A ; ZALCBERG, JR (STOCKTON PRESS, 1995-05-01)
    Studies were carried out in a variant human multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R, which expresses very low levels of mdr1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The induction of mdr1 RNA expression by three anthracyclines, (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin), VP-16 and two vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine) was semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of mdr1 expression was expressed as ratio of mdr1 to the internal RNA (actin). A significant increase (P < 0.02) in expression of mdr1 was noted within 4 hrs of exposure to 1.5 micrograms ml-1 daunorubicin or epirubicin. Neither vinblastine nor vincristine had any effect on mdr1 levels after an 8 h exposure. With increasing concentrations of daunorubicin or epirubicin in a fixed 24 h time period, mdr1 expression increased, although a biphasic response was seen. Based on MRK 16 binding, an increase in P-gp levels was seen in the CEM/A7R line after a 24 h exposure to 1 microgram ml-1 daunorubicin or epirubicin. The rapid increase in mdr1 expression after a short period of exposure to doxorubicin, daunorubicin or epirubicin suggests that induction of mdr1 expression may have an important role in the development of drug-resistant tumours.
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    The role of gp130-mediated signals in osteoclast development: Regulation of interleukin 11 production by osteoblasts and distribution of its receptor in bone marrow cultures
    Romas, E ; Udagawa, N ; Zhou, H ; Tamura, T ; Saito, M ; Taga, T ; Hilton, DJ ; Suda, T ; Ng, KW ; Martin, TJ (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1996-06-01)
    Interleukin (IL)-11 is a multifunctional cytokine whose role in osteoclast development has not been fully elucidated. We examined IL-11 production by primary osteoblasts and the effects of rat monoclonal anti-mouse glycoprotein 130 (gp130) antibody on osteoclast formation, using a coculture of mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. IL-1, TNF alpha, PGE2, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3) similarly induced production of IL-11 by osteoblasts, but IL-6, IL-4, and TGF beta did not. Primary osteoblasts constitutively expressed mRNAs for both IL-11 receptor (IL-11R alpha) and gp130. Osteotropic factors did not modulate IL-11R alpha mRNA at 24 h, but steady-state gp130 mRNA expression in osteoblasts was upregulated by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3, PTH, or IL-1. In cocultures, the formation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) in response to IL-11, or IL-6 together with its soluble IL-6 receptor was dose-dependently inhibited by rat monoclonal anti-mouse gp130 antibody. Furthermore, adding anti-gp130 antibody abolished OCL formation induced by IL-1, and partially inhibited OCL formation induced by PGE2, PTH, or 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. During osteoclast formation in marrow cultures, a sequential relationship existed between the expression of calcitonin receptor mRNA and IL-11R alpha mRNA. Osteoblasts as well as OCLs expressed transcripts for IL-11R alpha, as indicated by RT-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. These results suggest a central role of gp130-coupled cytokines, especially IL-11, in osteoclast development. Since osteoblasts and mature osteoclasts expressed IL-11R alpha mRNA, both bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells are potential targets of IL-11.
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    B lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cells
    Grumont, RJ ; Rourke, IJ ; O'Reilly, LA ; Strasser, A ; Miyake, K ; Sha, W ; Gerondakis, S (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1998-03-02)
    Rel and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB1, two members of the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor family, are essential for mitogen-induced B cell proliferation. Using mice with inactivated Rel or NF-kappaB1 genes, we show that these transcription factors differentially regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in B lymphocytes. Consistent with an increased rate of mature B cell turnover in naive nfkb1-/- mice, the level of apoptosis in cultures of quiescent nfkb1-/-, but not c-rel-/-, B cells is higher. The failure of c-rel-/- or nfkb1-/- B cells to proliferate in response to particular mitogens coincides with a cell cycle block early in G1 and elevated cell death. Expression of a bcl-2 transgene prevents apoptosis in resting and activated c-rel-/- and nfkb1-/- B cells, but does not overcome the block in cell cycle progression, suggesting that the impaired proliferation is not simply a consequence of apoptosis and that Rel/NF-kappaB proteins regulate cell survival and cell cycle control through independent mechanisms. In contrast to certain B lymphoma cell lines in which mitogen-induced cell death can result from Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent downregulation of c-myc, expression of c-myc is normal in resting and stimulated c-rel-/- B cells, indicating that target gene(s) regulated by Rel that are important for preventing apoptosis may differ in normal and immortalized B cells. Collectively, these results are the first to demonstrate that in normal B cells, NF-kappaB1 regulates survival of cells in G0, whereas mitogenic activation induced by distinct stimuli requires different Rel/NF-kappaB factors to control cell cycle progression and prevent apoptosis.
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    Early function of Pax5 (BSAP) before the pre-B cell receptor stage of B lymphopoiesis
    Thevenin, C ; Nutt, SL ; Busslinger, M (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1998-08-17)
    The formation of the pre-B cell receptor (BCR) corresponds to an important checkpoint in B cell development that selects pro-B (pre-BI) cells expressing a functionally rearranged immunoglobulin mu (Igmu) heavy chain protein to undergo the transition to the pre-B (pre-BII) cell stage. The pre-BCR contains, in addition to Igmu, the surrogate light chains lambda5 and VpreB and the signal transducing proteins Igalpha and Igbeta. The absence of one of these pre-BCR components is known to arrest B cell development at the pre-BI cell stage. Disruption of the Pax5 gene, which codes for the B cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), also blocks adult B lymphopoiesis at the pre-BI cell stage. Moreover, expression of the mb-1 (Igalpha) gene and VH-to-DHJH recombination at the IgH locus are reduced in Pax5-deficient B lymphocytes approximately 10- and approximately 50-fold, respectively. Here we demonstrate that complementation of these deficiencies in pre-BCR components by expression of functionally rearranged Ig mu and chimeric Igmu-Igbeta transgenes fails to advance B cell development to the pre-BII cell stage in Pax5 (-/-) mice in contrast to RAG2 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, the pre-BCR is stably expressed on cultured pre-BI cells from Igmu transgenic, Pax5-deficient bone marrow, but is unable to elicit its normal signaling responses. In addition, the early developmental block is unlikely to be caused by the absence of a survival signal, as it could not be rescued by expression of a bcl2 transgene in Pax5-deficient pre-BI cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the absence of Pax5 arrests adult B lymphopoiesis at an early developmental stage that is unresponsive to pre-BCR signaling.
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    Aerosol insulin induces regulatory CD8 gamma delta T cells that prevent murine insulin-dependent diabetes.
    Harrison, LC ; Dempsey-Collier, M ; Kramer, DR ; Takahashi, K (Rockefeller University Press, 1996-12-01)
    Cellular immune hyporesponsiveness can be induced by the presentation of soluble protein antigens to mucosal surfaces. Most studies of mucosa-mediated tolerance have used the oral route of antigen delivery and few have examined autoantigens in natural models of autoimmune disease. Insulin is an autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). When we administered insulin aerosol to NOD mice after the onset of subclinical disease, pancreatic islet pathology and diabetes incidence were both significantly reduced. Insulin-treated mice had increased circulating antibodies to insulin, absent splenocyte proliferation to the major epitope, insulin B chain amino acids 9-23, which was associated with increased IL-4 and particularly IL-10 secretion, and reduced proliferation to glutamic acid decarboxylase, another islet autoantigen. The ability of splenocytes from insulin-treated mice to suppress the adoptive transfer of diabetes to nondiabetic mice by T cells of diabetic mice was shown to be caused by small numbers of CD8 gamma delta T cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for suppressing cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Induction of regulatory CD8 gamma delta T cells by aerosol insulin is a therapeutic strategy with implications for the prevention of human IDDM.
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    B cell differentiation and isotype switching is related to division cycle number
    Hodgkin, PD ; Lee, JH ; Lyons, AB (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 1996-07-01)
    The mature, resting immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgD+ B lymphocyte can be induced by T cells to proliferate, switch isotype, and differentiate into Ig-secreting or memory cells. Furthermore, B cell activation results in the de novo expression or loss of a number of cell surface molecules that function in cell recirculation or further interaction with T cells. Here, a novel fluorescent technique reveals that T-dependent B cell activation induces cell surface changes that correlate with division cycle number. Furthermore, striking stepwise changes are often centered on a single round of cell division. Particularly marked was the consistent increase in IgG1+ B cells after the second division cycle, from an initial level of < 3% IgG1+ to a plateau of approximately 40% after six cell divisions. The relationship between the percentage of IgG1+ B cells and division number was independent of time after stimulation, indicating a requirement for cell division in isotype switching. IgD expression became negative after four divisions, and a number of changes centered on the sixth division, including the loss of IgM, CD23, and B220. The techniques used here should prove useful for tracking other differentiation pathways and for future analysis of the molecular events associated with stepwise differentiation at the single cell level.
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    A peptide-binding motif for I-A(g7), the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule of NOD and Biozzi AB/H mice.
    Harrison, LC ; Honeyman, MC ; Trembleau, S ; Gregori, S ; Gallazzi, F ; Augstein, P ; Brusic, V ; Hammer, J ; Adorini, L (Rockefeller University Press, 1997-03-17)
    The class II major histocompatibility complex molecule I-A(g7) is strongly linked to the development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in non obese diabetic mice and to the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Biozzi AB/H mice. Structurally, it resembles the HLA-DQ molecules associated with human IDDM, in having a non-Asp residue at position 57 in its beta chain. To identify the requirements for peptide binding to I-A(g7) and thereby potentially pathogenic T cell epitopes, we analyzed a known I-A(g7)-restricted T cell epitope, hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) amino acids 9-27. NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations demonstrated that the minimal epitope for activation of the T cell hybridoma 2D12.1 was M12-R21 and the minimum sequence for direct binding to purified I-A(g7) M12-Y20/K13-R21. Alanine (A) scanning revealed two primary anchors for binding at relative positions (p) 6 (L) and 9 (Y) in the HEL epitope. The critical role of both anchors was demonstrated by incorporating L and Y in poly(A) backbones at the same relative positions as in the HEL epitope. Well-tolerated, weakly tolerated, and nontolerated residues were identified by analyzing the binding of peptides containing multiple substitutions at individual positions. Optimally, p6 was a large, hydrophobic residue (L, I, V, M), whereas p9 was aromatic and hydrophobic (Y or F) or positively charged (K, R). Specific residues were not tolerated at these and some other positions. A motif for binding to I-A(g7) deduced from analysis of the model HEL epitope was present in 27/30 (90%) of peptides reported to be I-A(g7)-restricted T cell epitopes or eluted from I-A(g7). Scanning a set of overlapping peptides encompassing human proinsulin revealed the motif in 6/6 good binders (sensitivity = 100%) and 4/13 weak or non-binders (specificity = 70%). This motif should facilitate identification of autoantigenic epitopes relevant to the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of IDDM.