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ItemCytomegalovirus DNAemia and disease: natural history and management in settings other than allogeneic stem cell transplantationNg, Ashley P. ; WORTH, LEON ; Chen, Luke ; Seymour, John F. ; Prince, H. Miles ; SLAVIN, MONICA ; Thursky, Karin (Ferrata Storti Foundation, 2005-12)Background and Objectives. Despite increasing intensity and profound immunosuppressionassociated with newer therapies for hematologic malignancies, little information exists regarding cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in settings other than allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT).Design and Methods. We reviewed the epidemiology of CMV disease in patients who were CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive during treatment for hematologic malignancies without allogeneic SCT from June 1999 to June 2004.Results. Thirty-six patients with CMV reactivation were identified. Of these, 92% were undergoing investigation for fever. Fifteen patients with CMV DNAemia were treatedwith ganciclovir without CMV disease developing. Notably, 20 patients with untreated CMV DNAemia did not develop CMV disease during a median follow-up of 3.5 (1-19)months. The highest rates of reactivation were observed with HyperCVAD (7.8%) and alemtuzumab (50%).Interpretation and Conclusions. We recommend that screening for CMV DNAemia be instituted and pre-emptive therapy contemplated for asymptomatic CMV reactivationonly in patients receiving alemtuzumab therapy, but not routinely for other patients outside the allogeneic SCT setting. Indeed for such patients, detection of isolated CMV DNAemia does not imply the need for immediate therapy and future studies are needed to validate PCR detection of CMV DNA and CMV DNA titers as predictors for CMV disease.