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    Display of Native Antigen on cDC1 That Have Spatial Access to Both T and B Cells Underlies Efficient Humoral Vaccination.
    Kato, Y ; Steiner, TM ; Park, H-Y ; Hitchcock, RO ; Zaid, A ; Hor, JL ; Devi, S ; Davey, GM ; Vremec, D ; Tullett, KM ; Tan, PS ; Ahmet, F ; Mueller, SN ; Alonso, S ; Tarlinton, DM ; Ploegh, HL ; Kaisho, T ; Beattie, L ; Manton, JH ; Fernandez-Ruiz, D ; Shortman, K ; Lahoud, MH ; Heath, WR ; Caminschi, I (American Association of Immunologists, 2020-10-01)
    Follicular dendritic cells and macrophages have been strongly implicated in presentation of native Ag to B cells. This property has also occasionally been attributed to conventional dendritic cells (cDC) but is generally masked by their essential role in T cell priming. cDC can be divided into two main subsets, cDC1 and cDC2, with recent evidence suggesting that cDC2 are primarily responsible for initiating B cell and T follicular helper responses. This conclusion is, however, at odds with evidence that targeting Ag to Clec9A (DNGR1), expressed by cDC1, induces strong humoral responses. In this study, we reveal that murine cDC1 interact extensively with B cells at the border of B cell follicles and, when Ag is targeted to Clec9A, can display native Ag for B cell activation. This leads to efficient induction of humoral immunity. Our findings indicate that surface display of native Ag on cDC with access to both T and B cells is key to efficient humoral vaccination.
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    HBO1 (KAT7) Does Not Have an Essential Role in Cell Proliferation, DNA Replication, or Histone 4 Acetylation in Human Cells
    Kueh, AJ ; Eccles, S ; Tang, L ; Garnham, AL ; May, RE ; Herold, MJ ; Smyth, GK ; Voss, AK ; Thomas, T (American Society for Microbiology, 2020-02-01)
    HBO1 (MYST2/KAT7) is essential for histone 3 lysine 14 acetylation (H3K14ac) but is dispensable for H4 acetylation and DNA replication in mouse tissues. In contrast, previous studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in human cell lines have suggested that HBO1 is essential for DNA replication. To determine if HBO1 has distinctly different roles in immortalized human cell lines and normal mouse cells, we performed siRNA knockdown of HBO1. In addition, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate 293T, MCF7, and HeLa cell lines lacking HBO1. Using both techniques, we show that HBO1 is essential for all H3K14ac in human cells and is unlikely to have a direct effect on H4 acetylation and only has minor effects on cell proliferation. Surprisingly, the loss of HBO1 and H3K14ac in HeLa cells led to the secondary loss of almost all H4 acetylation after 4 weeks. Thus, HBO1 is dispensable for DNA replication and cell proliferation in immortalized human cells. However, while cell proliferation proceeded without HBO1 and H3K14ac, HBO1 gene deletion led to profound changes in cell adhesion, particularly in 293T cells. Consistent with this phenotype, the loss of HBO1 in both 293T and HeLa principally affected genes mediating cell adhesion, with comparatively minor effects on other cellular processes.
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    Location, location, location! Rewiring IL-2 circuits defines context-specific outcomes
    Rankin, L ; Gray, D (WILEY, 2022-09)
    Here, we highlight a recent publication by Whyte et al. that reveals diverse immune outcomes of interleukin (IL)-2 expression in distinct microenvironments. Their definition of context-dependent IL-2 networks paves the way for the development of tissue-specific therapies that enlist the potent immuno-modulatory activity of IL-2.
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    HOIP limits anti-tumor immunity by protecting against combined TNF and IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis
    Freeman, AJ ; Vervoort, SJ ; Michie, J ; Ramsbottom, KM ; Silke, J ; Kearney, CJ ; Oliaro, J (WILEY, 2021-11-04)
    The success of cancer immunotherapy is limited to a subset of patients, highlighting the need to identify the processes by which tumors evade immunity. Using CRISPR/Cas9 screening, we reveal that melanoma cells lacking HOIP, the catalytic subunit of LUBAC, are highly susceptible to both NK and CD8+ T-cell-mediated killing. We demonstrate that HOIP-deficient tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity to the combined effect of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF and IFN-γ, released by NK and CD8+ T cells upon target recognition. Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of HOIP augment tumor cell sensitivity to combined TNF and IFN-γ. Together, we unveil a protective regulatory axis, involving HOIP, which limits a transcription-dependent form of cell death that engages both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic machinery upon exposure to TNF and IFN-γ. Our findings highlight HOIP inhibition as a potential strategy to harness and enhance the killing capacity of TNF and IFN-γ during immunotherapy.
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    The BCL-2 family member BID plays a role during embryonic development in addition to its BH3-only protein function by acting in parallel to BAX, BAK and BOK
    Ke, FS ; Holloway, S ; Uren, RT ; Wong, AW ; Little, MH ; Kluck, RM ; Voss, AK ; Strasser, A (WILEY, 2022-08-01)
    The intrinsic apoptosis pathway, regulated by the BCL-2 protein family, is essential for embryonic development. Using mice lacking all known apoptosis effectors, BAX, BAK and BOK, we have previously defined the processes during development that require apoptosis. Rare Bok-/- Bax-/- Bak-/- triple knockout (TKO) mice developed to adulthood and several tissues that were thought to require apoptosis during development appeared normal. This raises the question if all apoptosis had been abolished in the TKO mice or if other BCL-2 family members could act as effectors of apoptosis. Here, we investigated the role of BID, generally considered to link the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, acting as a BH3-only protein initiating apoptosis upstream of BAX and BAK. We found that Bok-/- Bax-/- Bak-/- Bid-/- quadruple knockout (QKO) mice have additional developmental anomalies compared to TKO mice, consistent with a role of BID, not only upstream but also in parallel to BAX, BAK and BOK. Mitochondrial experiments identified a small cytochrome c-releasing activity of full-length BID. Collectively, these findings suggest a new effector role for BID in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
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    Oligomerization-driven MLKL ubiquitylation antagonizes necroptosis
    Liu, Z ; Dagley, LF ; Shield-Artin, K ; Young, SN ; Bankovacki, A ; Wang, X ; Tang, M ; Howitt, J ; Stafford, CA ; Nachbur, U ; Fitzgibbon, C ; Garnish, SE ; Webb, A ; Komander, D ; Murphy, JM ; Hildebrand, JM ; Silke, J (WILEY, 2021-12-01)
    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is the executioner in the caspase-independent form of programmed cell death called necroptosis. Receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) phosphorylates MLKL, triggering MLKL oligomerization, membrane translocation and membrane disruption. MLKL also undergoes ubiquitylation during necroptosis, yet neither the mechanism nor the significance of this event has been demonstrated. Here, we show that necroptosis-specific multi-mono-ubiquitylation of MLKL occurs following its activation and oligomerization. Ubiquitylated MLKL accumulates in a digitonin-insoluble cell fraction comprising organellar and plasma membranes and protein aggregates. Appearance of this ubiquitylated MLKL form can be reduced by expression of a plasma membrane-located deubiquitylating enzyme. Oligomerization-induced MLKL ubiquitylation occurs on at least four separate lysine residues and correlates with its proteasome- and lysosome-dependent turnover. Using a MLKL-DUB fusion strategy, we show that constitutive removal of ubiquitin from MLKL licences MLKL auto-activation independent of necroptosis signalling in mouse and human cells. Therefore, in addition to the role of ubiquitylation in the kinetic regulation of MLKL-induced death following an exogenous necroptotic stimulus, it also contributes to restraining basal levels of activated MLKL to avoid unwanted cell death.
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    Dynamic reconfiguration of pro-apoptotic BAK on membranes
    Sandow, JJ ; Tan, IK ; Huang, AS ; Masaldan, S ; Bernardini, JP ; Wardak, AZ ; Birkinshaw, RW ; Ninnis, RL ; Liu, Z ; Dalseno, D ; Lio, D ; Infusini, G ; Czabotar, PE ; Webb, A ; Dewson, G (WILEY, 2021-10-18)
    BAK and BAX, the effectors of intrinsic apoptosis, each undergo major reconfiguration to an activated conformer that self-associates to damage mitochondria and cause cell death. However, the dynamic structural mechanisms of this reconfiguration in the presence of a membrane have yet to be fully elucidated. To explore the metamorphosis of membrane-bound BAK, we employed hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The HDX-MS profile of BAK on liposomes comprising mitochondrial lipids was consistent with known solution structures of inactive BAK. Following activation, HDX-MS resolved major reconfigurations in BAK. Mutagenesis guided by our HDX-MS profiling revealed that the BCL-2 homology (BH) 4 domain maintains the inactive conformation of BAK, and disrupting this domain is sufficient for constitutive BAK activation. Moreover, the entire N-terminal region preceding the BAK oligomerisation domains became disordered post-activation and remained disordered in the activated oligomer. Removal of the disordered N-terminus did not impair, but rather slightly potentiated, BAK-mediated membrane permeabilisation of liposomes and mitochondria. Together, our HDX-MS analyses reveal new insights into the dynamic nature of BAK activation on a membrane, which may provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.
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    Too much death can kill you: inhibiting intrinsic apoptosis to treat disease
    Li, K ; van Delft, MF ; Dewson, G (WILEY, 2021-07-15)
    Apoptotic cell death is implicated in both physiological and pathological processes. Since many types of cancerous cells intrinsically evade apoptotic elimination, induction of apoptosis has become an attractive and often necessary cancer therapeutic approach. Conversely, some cells are extremely sensitive to apoptotic stimuli leading to neurodegenerative disease and immune pathologies. However, due to several challenges, pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis is still only a recently emerging strategy to combat pathological cell loss. Here, we describe several key steps in the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptosis pathway that represent potential targets for inhibitors in disease contexts. We also discuss the mechanisms of action, advantages and limitations of small-molecule and peptide-based inhibitors that have been developed to date. These inhibitors serve as important research tools to dissect apoptotic signalling and may foster new treatments to reduce unwanted cell loss.
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    Editorial: lack of gastrointestinal symptoms caused by gluten in patients without coeliac disease-time to ditch the 'gluten' from 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity'
    Tye-Din, JA (WILEY, 2022-07)
    LINKED CONTENT This article is linked to Crawley et al papers. To view these articles, visit https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.16914 and https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.16980
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    Enhancing our chances of picking a winner in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes
    Wei, AH ; Seymour, JF (WILEY, 2022-08)
    Hypomethylating agents remain the current standard of care for patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Adès et al. report outcomes from a randomised 'pick-a-winner' study design that examined the addition of either lenalidomide, valproic acid or idarubicin in combination with azacitidine, compared to azacitidine alone. Commentary on: Adès et al. A randomised phase II study of azacitidine (AZA) alone or with lenalidomide (LEN), valproic acid (VPA) or idarubicin (IDA) in higher-risk MDS: GFM's 'pick a winner' trial, with the impact of somatic mutations. Br J Haematol 2022;198:535-544.