Medical Biology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 749
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Bezlotoxumab prevents extraintestinal organ damage induced by Clostridioides difficile infection.
    Mileto, SJ ; Hutton, ML ; Walton, SL ; Das, A ; Ioannidis, LJ ; Ketagoda, D ; Quinn, KM ; Denton, KM ; Hansen, DS ; Lyras, D (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01)
    Clostridioides difficile is the most common cause of infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhea, with disease mediated by two major toxins TcdA and TcdB. In severe cases, systemic disease complications may arise, resulting in fatal disease. Systemic disease in animal models has been described, with thymic damage an observable consequence of severe disease in mice. Using a mouse model of C. difficile infection, we examined this disease phenotype, focussing on the thymus and serum markers of systemic disease. The efficacy of bezlotoxumab, a monoclonal TcdB therapeutic, to prevent toxin mediated systemic disease complications was also examined. C. difficile infection causes toxin-dependent thymic damage and CD4+CD8+ thymocyte depletion in mice. These systemic complications coincide with changes in biochemical markers of liver and kidney function, including increased serum urea and creatinine, and hypoglycemia. Administration of bezlotoxumab during C. difficile infection prevents systemic disease and thymic atrophy, without blocking gut damage, suggesting the leakage of gut contents into circulation may influence systemic disease. As the thymus has such a crucial role in T cell production and immune system development, these findings may have important implications in relapse of C. difficile disease and impaired immunity during C. difficile infection. The prevention of thymic atrophy and reduced systemic response following bezlotoxumab treatment, without altering colonic damage, highlights the importance of systemic disease in C. difficile infection, and provides new insights into the mechanism of action for this therapeutic.Abbreviations: Acute kidney injury (AKI); Alanine Transaminase (ALT); Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST); C. difficile infection (CDI); chronic kidney disease (CKD); combined repetitive oligo-peptides (CROPS); cardiovascular disease (CVD); Double positive (DP); hematoxylin and eosin (H&E); immunohistochemical (IHC); multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS); phosphate buffered saline (PBS); standard error of the mean (SEM); surface layer proteins (SLP); Single positive (SP); wild-type (WT).
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Assessment of IgG3 as a serological exposure marker for Plasmodium vivax in areas with moderate-high malaria transmission intensity.
    Tayipto, Y ; Rosado, J ; Gamboa, D ; White, MT ; Kiniboro, B ; Healer, J ; Opi, DH ; Beeson, JG ; Takashima, E ; Tsuboi, T ; Harbers, M ; Robinson, L ; Mueller, I ; Longley, RJ (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    A more sensitive surveillance tool is needed to identify Plasmodium vivax infections for treatment and to accelerate malaria elimination efforts. To address this challenge, our laboratory has developed an eight-antigen panel that detects total IgG as serological markers of P. vivax exposure within the prior 9 months. The value of these markers has been established for use in areas with low transmission. In moderate-high transmission areas, there is evidence that total IgG is more long-lived than in areas with low transmission, resulting in poorer performance of these markers in these settings. Antibodies that are shorter-lived may be better markers of recent infection for use in moderate-high transmission areas. Using a multiplex assay, the antibody temporal kinetics of total IgG, IgG1, IgG3, and IgM against 29 P. vivax antigens were measured over 36 weeks following asymptomatic P. vivax infection in Papua New Guinean children (n = 31), from an area with moderate-high transmission intensity. IgG3 declined faster to background than total IgG, IgG1, and IgM. Based on these kinetics, IgG3 performance was then assessed for classifying recent exposure in a cohort of Peruvian individuals (n = 590; age 3-85 years) from an area of moderate transmission intensity. Using antibody responses against individual antigens, the highest performance of IgG3 in classifying recent P. vivax infections in the prior 9 months was to one of the Pv-fam-a proteins assessed (PVX_125728) (AUC = 0.764). Surprisingly, total IgG was overall a better marker of recent P. vivax infection, with the highest individual classification performance to RBP2b1986-2653 (PVX_094255) (AUC = 0.838). To understand the acquisition of IgG3 in this Peruvian cohort, relevant epidemiological factors were explored using a regression model. IgG3 levels were positively associated with increasing age, living in an area with (relatively) higher transmission intensity, and having three or more PCR-detected blood-stage P. vivax infections within the prior 13 months. Overall, we found that IgG3 did not have high accuracy for detecting recent exposure to P. vivax in the Peruvian cohort, with our data suggesting that this is due to the high levels of prior exposure required to acquire high IgG3 antibody levels.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The unique role of innate lymphoid cells in cancer and the hepatic microenvironment.
    Curio, S ; Belz, GT (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-09)
    Cancer is a complex disease, and despite incredible progress over the last decade, it remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Liver cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver metastases are distinct from other cancers in that they typically emerge as a consequence of long-term low-grade inflammation. Understanding the mechanisms that underpin inflammation-driven tissue remodeling of the hepatic immune environment is likely to provide new insights into much needed treatments for this devastating disease. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s, are particularly enriched in the liver and thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of liver diseases, including cancer. NK cells are an attractive, but underexplored, therapeutic target in hepatic disease due to their role in immunosurveillance and their ability to recognize and eliminate malignant cells. ILC1s are closely related to and share many phenotypic features with NK cells but are less well studied. Thus, their utility in immunotherapeutic approaches is not yet well understood. Here, we review our current understanding of ILCs in cancer with a particular focus on liver and liver-related diseases.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Author Correction: Generation of a CRISPR activation mouse that enables modelling of aggressive lymphoma and interrogation of venetoclax resistance.
    Deng, Y ; Diepstraten, ST ; Potts, MA ; Giner, G ; Trezise, S ; Ng, AP ; Healey, G ; Kane, SR ; Cooray, A ; Behrens, K ; Heidersbach, A ; Kueh, AJ ; Pal, M ; Wilcox, S ; Tai, L ; Alexander, WS ; Visvader, JE ; Nutt, SL ; Strasser, A ; Haley, B ; Zhao, Q ; Kelly, GL ; Herold, MJ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-25)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    How to Implement the 3-Phase FODMAP Diet Into Gastroenterological Practice.
    Sultan, N ; Varney, JE ; Halmos, EP ; Biesiekierski, JR ; Yao, CK ; Muir, JG ; Gibson, PR ; Tuck, CJ (The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 2022-07-30)
    Background/Aims: The 3-phase fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diet has shown a high level of efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome, largely based on dietitian delivered education. However, access to dietitians can be limited, and challenges exist when applying the diet to a wide range of cultures, such as limited FODMAP analysis of local foods. This review aims to discuss ways to optimally use the FODMAP diet in practice in a wide range of cultures, directed at gastroenterologists from a dietitian's perspective. Methods: Recent literature was analysed via search databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus. Results: The dietetic process involves detailed assessment and follow-up through the 3 stages of the FODMAP diet (restriction, re-introduction, and long-term maintenance). Emerging evidence suggests the diet can be delivered by other health professionals such as the gastroenterologist or nurse, but training on how to do so successfully would be needed. Self-guided approaches through use of technology or specialised food delivery services may be an alternative when dietitians are not available, but efficacy data is limited. Regardless of delivery mode, nutritional and psychological risks of the diet must be mitigated. Additionally, culturally appropriate education must be provided, with accommodations necessary when the FODMAP content of local foods are unknown. Conclusion: While the diet has shown improved irritable bowel syndrome outcomes across studies, it is important to acknowledge the essential role of dietitians in implementing, tailoring, and managing the diet to achieve the best outcome for each individual.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tryptophan C-mannosylation is critical for Plasmodium falciparum transmission (vol 13, 1400, 2022)
    Lopaticki, S ; McConville, R ; John, A ; Geoghegan, N ; Mohamed, SD ; Verzier, L ; Steel, RWJ ; Evelyn, C ; O'Neill, MT ; Soler, NM ; Scott, NE ; Rogers, KL ; Goddard-Borger, ED ; Boddey, JA (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-08-23)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Investigating disparity in access to Australian clinical genetic health services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    Luke, J ; Dalach, P ; Tuer, L ; Savarirayan, R ; Ferdinand, A ; McGaughran, J ; Kowal, E ; Massey, L ; Garvey, G ; Dawkins, H ; Jenkins, M ; Paradies, Y ; Pearson, G ; Stutterd, CA ; Baynam, G ; Kelaher, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-24)
    Globally, there is a recognised need that all populations should be able to access the benefits of genomics and precision medicine. However, achieving this remains constrained by a paucity of data that quantifies access to clinical genomics, particularly amongst Indigenous populations. Using administrative data from clinical genetic health services across three Australian jurisdictions (states/territories), we investigate disparities in the scheduling and attendance of appointments among Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, compared to non-Indigenous people. For 14,870 appointments scheduled between 2014-2018, adjusted Multivariate Poisson Regression models revealed that Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people were scheduled fewer appointments (IRR 0.73 [0.68-0.80], <0.001) and attended at lower rates (IRR 0.85 [0.78-0.93], <0.001). Within this population, adults, females, remote residents, and those presenting in relation to cancer or prenatal indications experienced the greatest disparity in access. These results provide important baseline data related to disparities in access to clinical genomics in Australia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Connecting omics signatures and revealing biological mechanisms with iLINCS.
    Pilarczyk, M ; Fazel-Najafabadi, M ; Kouril, M ; Shamsaei, B ; Vasiliauskas, J ; Niu, W ; Mahi, N ; Zhang, L ; Clark, NA ; Ren, Y ; White, S ; Karim, R ; Xu, H ; Biesiada, J ; Bennett, MF ; Davidson, SE ; Reichard, JF ; Roberts, K ; Stathias, V ; Koleti, A ; Vidovic, D ; Clarke, DJB ; Schürer, SC ; Ma'ayan, A ; Meller, J ; Medvedovic, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-09)
    There are only a few platforms that integrate multiple omics data types, bioinformatics tools, and interfaces for integrative analyses and visualization that do not require programming skills. Here we present iLINCS ( http://ilincs.org ), an integrative web-based platform for analysis of omics data and signatures of cellular perturbations. The platform facilitates mining and re-analysis of the large collection of omics datasets (>34,000), pre-computed signatures (>200,000), and their connections, as well as the analysis of user-submitted omics signatures of diseases and cellular perturbations. iLINCS analysis workflows integrate vast omics data resources and a range of analytics and interactive visualization tools into a comprehensive platform for analysis of omics signatures. iLINCS user-friendly interfaces enable execution of sophisticated analyses of omics signatures, mechanism of action analysis, and signature-driven drug repositioning. We illustrate the utility of iLINCS with three use cases involving analysis of cancer proteogenomic signatures, COVID 19 transcriptomic signatures and mTOR signaling.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Genistein Targets STING-Driven Antiviral Responses.
    Ullah, TR ; Balka, KR ; Ambrose, RL ; Pépin, G ; Wilce, MCJ ; Wilce, JA ; Thomas, BJ ; De Nardo, D ; Williams, BRG ; Gantier, MP ; Klein, S (American Society for Microbiology, 2022-08-30)
    Cytoplasmic detection of DNA by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is an essential component of antiviral responses. Upon synthesis, cGAMP binds to the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) in infected and adjacent cells through intercellular transfer by connexins forming gap-junctions, eliciting a strong IFN-β-driven antiviral response. We demonstrate here that Genistein, a flavonoid compound naturally occurring in soy-based foods, inhibits cGAS-STING antiviral signaling at two levels. First, Genistein pretreatment of cGAMP-producing cells inhibited gap-junction intercellular communication, resulting in reduced STING responses in adjacent cells. In addition, Genistein directly blocked STING activation by the murine agonist DMXAA, by decreasing the interaction of STING with TBK1 and IKKε. As a result, Genistein attenuated STING signaling in human and mouse cells, dampening antiviral activity against Semliki Forest Virus infection. Collectively, our findings identify a previously unrecognized proviral activity of Genistein mediated via its inhibitory effects at two levels of cGAS-STING signaling. IMPORTANCE Several reports suggest that Genistein exhibits antiviral activities against DNA viruses. Our work uncovers a previously unrecognized proviral effect of Genistein, through inhibition of the cGAS-STING pathway at the level of cGAMP transfer and its sensing by STING. This suggests that the use of Genistein as an antiviral should be taken with caution as it may reduce the protective antiviral effects elicited by host STING activation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    REViewer: haplotype-resolved visualization of read alignments in and around tandem repeats
    Dolzhenko, E ; Weisburd, B ; Ibanez, K ; Rajan-Babu, I-S ; Anyansi, C ; Bennett, MF ; Billingsley, K ; Carroll, A ; Clamons, S ; Danzi, MC ; Deshpande, V ; Ding, J ; Fazal, S ; Halman, A ; Jadhav, B ; Qiu, Y ; Richmond, PA ; Saunders, CT ; Scheffler, K ; van Vugt, JJFA ; Zwamborn, RRAJ ; Chong, SS ; Friedman, JM ; Tucci, A ; Rehm, HL ; Eberle, MA (BMC, 2022-08-11)
    BACKGROUND: Expansions of short tandem repeats are the cause of many neurogenetic disorders including familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington disease, and many others. Multiple methods have been recently developed that can identify repeat expansions in whole genome or exome sequencing data. Despite the widely recognized need for visual assessment of variant calls in clinical settings, current computational tools lack the ability to produce such visualizations for repeat expansions. Expanded repeats are difficult to visualize because they correspond to large insertions relative to the reference genome and involve many misaligning and ambiguously aligning reads. RESULTS: We implemented REViewer, a computational method for visualization of sequencing data in genomic regions containing long repeat expansions and FlipBook, a companion image viewer designed for manual curation of large collections of REViewer images. To generate a read pileup, REViewer reconstructs local haplotype sequences and distributes reads to these haplotypes in a way that is most consistent with the fragment lengths and evenness of read coverage. To create appropriate training materials for onboarding new users, we performed a concordance study involving 12 scientists involved in short tandem repeat research. We used the results of this study to create a user guide that describes the basic principles of using REViewer as well as a guide to the typical features of read pileups that correspond to low confidence repeat genotype calls. Additionally, we demonstrated that REViewer can be used to annotate clinically relevant repeat interruptions by comparing visual assessment results of 44 FMR1 repeat alleles with the results of triplet repeat primed PCR. For 38 of these alleles, the results of visual assessment were consistent with triplet repeat primed PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Read pileup plots generated by REViewer offer an intuitive way to visualize sequencing data in regions containing long repeat expansions. Laboratories can use REViewer and FlipBook to assess the quality of repeat genotype calls as well as to visually detect interruptions or other imperfections in the repeat sequence and the surrounding flanking regions. REViewer and FlipBook are available under open-source licenses at https://github.com/illumina/REViewer and https://github.com/broadinstitute/flipbook respectively.