Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences - Research Publications

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    A systematic review of the modelling and economic evaluation studies assessing regulatory options for e-cigarette use
    Collins, LG ; Lindsay, D ; Lal, A ; Doan, T ; Schuz, J ; Jongenelis, M ; Scollo, M (ELSEVIER, 2024-07)
    BACKGROUND: Governments around the world are considering regulating access to nicotine e-cigarettes to prevent uptake among youth however people that smoke tobacco may use them to assist with smoking cessation. The health and cost implications of regulating e-cigarette use among populations are unknown but have been explored in modelling studies. We reviewed health economic evaluation and simulation modelling studies that assessed long-term consequences and interpret their potential usefulness for decision-makers. METHODS: A systematic review with a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Six databases were searched for modelling studies evaluating population-level e-cigarette control policies or interventions restricting e-cigarette use versus more liberalized use. Studies were required to report the outcomes of life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and/or healthcare costs. The quality of the studies was assessed using two quality assessment tools. RESULTS: In total, 15 studies were included with nine for the United States and one each for the United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Singapore, Canada, and New Zealand. Three studies included cost-utility analyses. Most studies involved health state transition (or Markov) closed cohort models. Many studies had limitations with their model structures, data input quality and transparency, and insufficient analyses handling model uncertainty. Findings were mixed with 11 studies concluding that policies permitting e-cigarette use lead to net benefits and 4 studies concluding net losses in life-years or QALYs and/or healthcare costs.Five studies had industry conflicts of interest. CONCLUSIONS: While authors did conclude net benefit than net harm in more of the studies so far conducted, the significant limitations that we identified with many of the studies in this review, make it uncertain whether or not countries can expect net population harms or benefits of restrictive versus unrestrictive e-cigarette policies. The generalizability of the findings is limited for decision-makers. In light of the deep uncertainty around the health and economic outcomes of e-cigarettes, simulation modelling methods and uncertainty analyses should be strengthened.
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    The structure and evolution of social psychology: a co-citation network analysis
    Haslam, N ; Baes, N ; Haghani, M (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024)
    The present study examined the thematic composition and temporal evolution of social psychology through a co-citation network analysis of 80,350 articles published from 1970 through 2022. Six primary thematic clusters were identified: a broad “Classic Social Psychology” cluster most prominent in the 1970s and 1980s; “Traits & Affect” and “Social Cognition” clusters most influential in the 1990s; and “The Self,” “Intergroup Relations,” and “Big Five” clusters emerging after 2000. A small seventh cluster dedicated to COVID-19 and conspiracy theories emerged around 2021. These trends fit a narrative of generational shifts within distinct social and personality psychology traditions.
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    A Systematic Scoping Review of Indigenous People's Experience of Healing and Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse.
    Gibbs, J ; Milroy, H ; Mulder, S ; Black, C ; Lloyd-Johnsen, C ; Brown, S ; Gee, G (MDPI AG, 2024-03-07)
    Child sexual abuse is a form of violence that occurs across nations and cultures. Collective efforts are being made to address this issue within many Indigenous communities. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have expressed the need for cultural models of healing child sexual abuse. A preliminary exploration of the relevant literature shows a lack of synthesis with regard to the current evidence base. This protocol outlines the methods and background for a scoping review that aims to explore and collate the broad scope of literature related to healing from child sexual abuse within an Indigenous context. The proposed review utilises a 'population, concept, and context structure' from the Joanna Briggs Institute to explore the broad scope of the literature within a scoping review framework. The target population is Indigenous survivors of child sexual abuse, including Indigenous populations from six distinct regions: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from Australia; Māori peoples from Aotearoa (New Zealand); First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples from Canada; Native American peoples from North America; Native peoples from Alaska; and the Sámi peoples of the Sápmi region in Northern Europe. The concept within the review is healing from an Indigenous perspective, which includes a broad range of processes related to both recovery and personal growth. The contexts explored within this review are any context in which healing from child sexual abuse can occur. This may include processes related to disclosure and accessing services, specific interventions or programs for survivors of child sexual abuse, as well as broader non-specific healing programs and personal experiences of healing without intervention. The scoping review will use search strings with broad inclusion and exclusion criteria to capture the potential breadth of perspectives. The search will be conducted across several academic databases and will also include an extensive search for grey literature. This protocol establishes the proposed benefits of this scoping review.
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    An open label pilot trial of low-dose lithium for young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis
    Rice, SM ; Nelson, B ; Amminger, GP ; Francey, SM ; Phillips, LJ ; Simmons, MB ; Ross, M ; Yuen, HP ; Yung, AR ; O'Gorman, K ; Mcgorry, PD ; Wood, SJ ; Berger, GE (WILEY, 2024-04-10)
    AIM: Lithium, even at low doses, appears to offer neuroprotection against a wide variety of insults. In this controlled pilot, we examined the safety (i.e., side-effect profile) of lithium in a sample of young people identified at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. The secondary aim was to explore whether lithium provided a signal of clinical efficacy in reducing transition to psychosis compared with treatment as usual (TAU). METHODS: Young people attending the PACE clinic at Orygen, Melbourne, were prescribed a fixed dose (450 mg) of lithium (n = 25) or received TAU (n = 78). The primary outcome examined side-effects, with transition to psychosis, functioning and measures of psychopathology assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Participants in both groups were functionally compromised (lithium group GAF = 56.6; monitoring group GAF = 56.9). Side-effect assessment indicated that lithium was well-tolerated. 64% (n = 16) of participants in the lithium group were lithium-adherent to week 12. Few cases transitioned to psychosis across the study period; lithium group 4% (n = 1); monitoring group 7.7% (n = 6). There was no difference in time to transition to psychosis between the groups. No group differences were observed in other functioning and symptom domains, although all outcomes improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: With a side-effect profile either comparable to, or better than UHR antipsychotic trials, lithium might be explored for further research with UHR young people. A definitive larger trial is needed to determine the efficacy of lithium in this cohort.
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    Disease-modifying therapies in managing disability worsening in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal analysis of global and national registries
    Sharmin, S ; Roos, I ; Malpas, CB ; Iaffaldano, P ; Simone, M ; Filippi, M ; Havrdova, EK ; Ozakbas, S ; Morra, VB ; Alroughani, R ; Zaffaroni, M ; Patti, F ; Eichau, S ; Salemi, G ; Di Sapio, A ; Inglese, M ; Portaccio, E ; Trojano, M ; Amato, MP ; Kalincik, T (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2024-05)
    BACKGROUND: High-efficacy disease-modifying therapies have been proven to slow disability accrual in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, their impact on disability worsening in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, particularly during the early phases, is not well understood. We evaluated how high-efficacy therapies influence transitions across five disability states, ranging from minimal disability to gait impairment and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, in people with paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from the international MSBase registry, containing data from people with multiple sclerosis from 151 centres across 41 countries, and the Italian Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Register, containing data from people with multiple sclerosis from 178 Italian multiple sclerosis centres. People younger than 18 years at the onset of multiple sclerosis symptoms were included, provided they had a confirmed diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and at least four Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores recorded within 12-month intervals. The primary outcome was the time to change in disability state: minimal disability (EDSS scores 0, 1·0, and 1·5), mild disability (EDSS scores 2·0 and 2·5), moderate disability (EDSS scores 3·0 and 3·5), gait impairment (EDSS scores ≥4·0), and clinician diagnosed secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A multi-state model was constructed to simulate the natural course of multiple sclerosis, modelling the probabilities of both disability worsening and improvement simultaneously. The impact of high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (alemtuzumab, cladribine, daclizumab, fingolimod, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, rituximab, or autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and low-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta, or teriflunomide), compared with no treatment, on the course of disability was assessed. Apart from recruitment, individuals with lived experience of multiple sclerosis were not involved in the design and conduct of this study. FINDINGS: A total of 5224 people (3686 [70·6%] female and 1538 [29·4%] male) with mean age at onset of multiple sclerosis 15·24 years (SD 2·52) were included. High-efficacy therapies reduced the hazard of disability worsening across the disability states. The largest reduction (hazard ratio 0·41 [95% CI 0·31-0·53]) was observed in participants who were treated with high-efficacy therapies while in the minimal disability state, compared with those remained untreated. The benefit of high-efficacy therapies declined with increasing disability. Young people with minimal disability who received low-efficacy therapy also experienced a reduced hazard (hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·54-0·77]) of transitioning to mild disability, in contrast to those who remained untreated. INTERPRETATION: Treatment of paediatric-onset relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with high-efficacy therapy substantially reduces the risk of reaching key disability milestones. This reduction in risk is most pronounced among young people with minimal or mild disability when treatment began. Children with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis should be treated early with high-efficacy therapy, before developing significant neurological impairments, to better preserve their neurological capacity. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; MSBase Foundation Fellowship; MS Australia Postdoctoral Fellowship.
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    Anthony George Klein 1935–2021
    Finlayson, TR ; Mann, L ; McKellar, BHJ ; Satchell, DG (CSIRO Publishing, 2024)
    Professor Anthony (Tony) George Klein AM, FAA (1935–2021) was an outstanding physicist, university teacher, leader, mentor and science communicator. We recount Tony’s life from his childhood in wartime Romania, his early interest in mathematics, the family’s migration to Australia via Israel in 1953, high school and university education in Melbourne, appointment as a research scientist at the AAEC in Sydney, followed by a distinguished career as an academic, researcher and leader in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne where he retired as Emeritus Professor. The memoir describes Tony Klein’s personal qualities, the influences and experiences shaping his career, his major research contributions and collaborations in the field of neutron optics and neutron interferometry, his service to scientific and medical organisations and recognition by the university, the Australian Academy of Science and the nation. We evaluate Tony Klein’s contribution to science, knowledge and higher education.
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    A Colorful Formalization of the Typological Prevalence Hypothesis
    Torgue, J ; Mollica, F ; Spike, M ; Goldwater, M ; Anggoro, FK ; Hayes, BK ; Ong, DC (The Cognitive Science Society, 2023)
    Languages vary in the way they categorize semantic domains. Incidentally certain semantic systems appear more often than others across the world. Recent research has shown that the attested variability can be explained as the result of languages being a plurality of optimal solutions to efficiency constraints. However, the question of the prevalence remains open. Assuming that languages are a form of culturally transmitted cognitive technology, the Typological Prevalence Hypothesis proposes that the prevalence of a linguistic system is explained by how cognitively natural it is to learn and use. We aim to formalize and test this hypothesis by proposing an information-theoretic measure of communicative and developmental naturalness applied to color typology. While controlling for phylogenetic relatedness, we find that both communicative and developmental naturalness are important predictors of typological prevalence.
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    Regulating emotions about secrets.
    Bianchi, V ; Greenaway, KH ; Slepian, ML ; Kalokerinos, EK (American Psychological Association (APA), 2024-03-21)
    Secrecy is common and psychologically costly. Research shows that secrets have high emotional stakes, but no research has directly tested how people regulate their emotions about secrets. To fill this gap, we conducted an experimental study (Study 1), then moved to studying secrecy "in the wild" to capture regulatory processes as they unfold in everyday life (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 1 (N = 498), people reported using different strategies to regulate emotions about secrets compared to matched nonsecrets. In two daily diary studies (NStudy 2 = 174, 1,059 surveys; NStudy 3 = 240, 2,764 surveys), participants reported engaging in acceptance, distraction, and expressive suppression most-and social sharing least-to manage emotions about secrets. Moreover, in testing which kinds of secrets required most regulation, Study 3 suggested that significant, negative, controllable, and socially harmful secrets were associated with greater use of rumination, distraction, and suppression; perceived immorality of keeping secrets was associated with greater use of reappraisal; and secret discoverability did not differentially predict regulation strategies. Our findings indicate that when regulating emotions about their secrets, people appear to prioritize their intention to keep secret information hidden, despite potential well-being costs that may come with enacting this intention. Understanding the regulatory processes involved in secrecy is a foundation on which future research can build to identify ways of alleviating the burden of secrecy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).
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    Associations between multidomain modifiable dementia risk factors with AD biomarkers and cognition in middle-aged and older adults
    Bransby, L ; Yassi, N ; Rosenich, E ; Buckley, R ; Li, Q-X ; Maruff, P ; Pase, M ; Lim, YY (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2024-06)
    This study aimed to determine associations between modifiable dementia risk factors (MDRF), across domains mood symptomatology, lifestyle behaviors, cardiovascular conditions, cognitive/social engagement, sleep disorders/symptomatology, with cognition, beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau, and brain volume. Middle-aged/older adults (n=82) enrolled in a sub-study of the Healthy Brain Project completed self-report questionnaires and a neuropsychological battery. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) (Roche Elecsys), and MRI markers of hippocampal volume and total brain volume were obtained. Participants were classified as no/single domain risk (≤1 domains) or multidomain risk (≥2 domains). Compared to the no/single domain risk group, the multidomain risk group performed worse on the Preclinical Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (d=0.63, p=.005), and Executive Function (d=0.50, p=.016), and had increased p-tau181 (d=0.47, p=.042) and t-tau (d=0.54, p=.021). In middle-aged/older adults, multidomain MDRFs were related to increases in tau and worse cognition, but not Aβ or brain volume. Findings suggest that increases in AD biomarkers are apparent in midlife, particularly for individuals with greater burden, or variety of MDRFs.
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    Changing your mind about the data: Updating sampling assumptions in inductive inference
    Hayes, BK ; Pham, J ; Lee, J ; Perfors, A ; Ransom, K ; Desai, SC (ELSEVIER, 2024-04)
    When people use samples of evidence to make inferences, they consider both the sample contents and how the sample was generated ("sampling assumptions"). The current studies examined whether people can update their sampling assumptions - whether they can revise a belief about sample generation that is discovered to be incorrect, and reinterpret old data in light of the new belief. We used a property induction task where learners saw a sample of instances that shared a novel property and then inferred whether it generalized to other items. Assumptions about how the sample was selected were manipulated between conditions: in the property sampling frame condition, items were selected because they shared a property, while in the category sampling frame condition, items were selected because they belonged to a particular category. Experiment 1 found that these frames affected patterns of property generalization regardless of whether they were presented before or after the sample data was observed: in both cases, generalization was narrower under a property than a category frame. In Experiments 2 and 3, an initial category or property frame was presented before the sample, and was later retracted and replaced with the complementary frame. Learners were able to update their beliefs about sample generation, basing their property generalization on the more recent correct frame. These results show that learners can revise incorrect beliefs about data selection and adjust their inductive inferences accordingly.