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ItemIndividual-level factors associated with intentions to quit smoking among adult smokers in six cities of China: findings from the ITC China SurveyFeng, G ; Jiang, Y ; Li, Q ; Yong, H-H ; Elton-Marshall, T ; Yang, J ; Li, L ; Sansone, N ; Fong, GT (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2010-10)BACKGROUND: Over 350 million smokers live in China, and this represents nearly one-third of the smoking population of the world. Smoking cessation is critically needed to help reduce the harms and burden caused by smoking-related diseases. It is therefore important to identify the determinants of quitting and of quit intentions among smokers in China. Such knowledge would have potential to guide future tobacco control policies and programs that could increase quit rates in China. OBJECTIVE: To identify the correlates of intentions to quit smoking among a representative sample of adult smokers in six cities in China. METHODS: Data from wave 1 (2006) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult Chinese smokers in six cities: Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan, was analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design. About 800 smokers were surveyed in each selected city (total n=4815). RESULTS: Past quit attempts, duration of past attempts, Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), outcome expectancy of quitting, worry about future health and overall opinion of smoking were found to be independently associated with intentions to quit smoking, but demographic characteristics were not. CONCLUSIONS: The determinants of quit intentions among smokers in China are fairly similar to those found among smokers in Western countries, despite the fact that interest in quitting is considerably lower among Chinese smokers. Identifying the determinants of quit intentions provides possibilities for shaping effective policies and programs for increasing quitting among smokers in China.
ItemA cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in ChinaLiu, RL ; Yang, Y ; Travers, MJ ; Fong, GT ; O'Connor, RJ ; Hyland, A ; Li, L ; Nan, Y ; Feng, GZ ; Li, Q ; Jiang, Y (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2010-10)OBJECTIVES: To assess indoor second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) (fine particles 2.5 μm in diameter and smaller) level measurements in five cities in China. METHODS: The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. Portable aerosol monitors were used to measure PM(2.5) concentrations in 404 restaurants and bars. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled. RESULTS: Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, 9 had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) were observed to have allowed smoking during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed was 208 μg/m(3) and 99 μg/m(3) in venues without observed smoking. When outdoor PM(2.5) levels were adjusted, indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed were consistently significantly higher than in venues without smoking observed (F=80.49, p<0.001). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were positively correlated with outdoor PM(2.5) levels (partial rho=0.37 p<0.001) and active smoker density (partial rho=0.34, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings in other countries, PM(2.5) levels in smoking places are significantly higher than those in smoke-free places and are strongly related to the number and density of active smokers. These findings document the high levels of SHS in hospitality venues in China and point to the urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free laws in China to protect the public from SHS hazards, as called for in Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was ratified by China in 2005.
ItemBeliefs about the relative harm of "light" and "low tar" cigarettes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey.Elton-Marshall, T ; Fong, GT ; Zanna, MP ; Jiang, Y ; Hammond, D ; O'Connor, RJ ; Yong, H-H ; Li, L ; King, B ; Li, Q ; Borland, R ; Cummings, KM ; Driezen, P (BMJ Publishing Group, 2010-10)BACKGROUND: Many smokers in Western countries perceive "light" or "low tar" cigarettes as less harmful and less addictive than "regular" or "full flavoured" cigarettes. However, there is little research on whether similar perceptions exist among smokers in low and middle incomes, including China. OBJECTIVE: To characterise beliefs about "light" and "low tar" cigarettes among adult urban smokers in China. METHODS: We analysed data from Wave 1 of the ITC China Survey, a face-to-face household survey of 4732 adult Chinese smokers randomly selected from six cities in China in 2006. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design. FINDINGS: Half (50.0%) of smokers in our sample reported having ever tried a cigarette described as "light," "mild" or "low tar". The majority of smokers in our sample (71%) believed that "light" and/or "low tar" cigarettes are less harmful compared to "full flavoured" cigarettes. By far the strongest predictor of the belief that "light" and/or "low tar" cigarettes are less harmful was the belief that "light" and/or "low tar" cigarettes feel smoother on the respiratory system (p<0.001, OR=53.87, 95% CI 41.28 to 70.31). CONCLUSION: Misperceptions about "light" and/or "low tar" cigarettes were strongly related to the belief that these cigarettes are smoother on the respiratory system. Future tobacco control policies should go beyond eliminating labelling and marketing that promotes "light" and "low tar" cigarettes by regulation of product characteristics (for example, additives, filter vents) that reinforce perceptions that "light" and "low tar" cigarettes are smoother on the respiratory system and therefore less harmful.
ItemRegional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey.Yang, Y ; Li, L ; Yong, H-H ; Borland, R ; Wu, X ; Li, Q ; Wu, C ; Foong, K (BMJ Publishing Group, 2010)OBJECTIVE: To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. METHODS: Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. RESULTS: The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. CONCLUSION: The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced.